Physics

Charging by Induction/p>

Physics

Electric Current in Conductors

Physics

Oersted's Experiment

Topics Covered

  • Introduction
  • Electric Charge
  • Conductors and Insulators
  • Charging by Induction
  • Basic Properties of Electric Charge
  • Coulombs Law
  • Forces between Multiple Charges
  • Electric Field
  • Electric Field Lines
  • Electric Flux
  • Electric Dipole
  • Dipole in a Uniform External Field
  • Continuous Charge Distribution
  • Gauss's Law
  • Applications of Gauss's Law
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Electrostatic Potential
  • Potential Due to a Point Charge
  • Potential Due to an Electric Dipole
  • Potential Due to a System of Charges
  • Equipotential Surfaces
  • Potential Energy of a System of Charges
  • Potential Energy in an External Field
  • Electrostatics of Conductors
  • Dielectrics and Polarisation
  • Capacitors and Capacitance
  • The Parallel Plate Capacitor
  • Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance
  • Combination of Capacitors
  • Capacitors in series Capacitors in parallel Energy Stored in a Capacitor
  • Van De Graaff Generator
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Electric Current
  • Electric Currents in Conductors
  • Ohm s Law
  • Drift of Electrons and the origin of Resistivity
  • Limitations of Ohm s Law
  • Resistivity of Various Materials
  • Temperature Dependence of Resistivity
  • Electrical Energy, Power
  • Combination of Resistors- Series and Parallel
  • Cells, EMF, Internal Resistance
  • Cells in Series and in Parallel
  • Kirchhoff s Law
  • Wheatstone Bridge
  • Meter Bridge
  • Potentiometer
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • MagneticForce
  • Magnetic Field, Lorentz Force Magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor Motion in a Magnetic Field
  • Motion in combined electric and magnetic field-Velocity selector
  • Magnetic Field due to a Current Element Biot-Savart Law
  • Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop
  • Ampere s Circuital Law
  • The Solenoid and The Toroid
  • The solenoid The toroid Force between two parallel currents, the Ampere
  • Torque on Current Loop, Magnetic Dipole
  • Torque on a rectangular current loop in a uniform magnetic field Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron The Moving Coil Galvanometer
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • The Bar Magnet
  • The magnetic field lines Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid The dipole in a uniform magnetic field Magnetism and Guass s Law
  • The Earth s Magnetism
  • Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity
  • Magnetic Properties of Materials
  • Permanent magnets and Electromagnets
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • The experiments of Faraday and Henry
  • Magnetic Flux
  • Faraday s Law of Induction
  • Lenz s Law and Conservation of Energy
  • Motional Electromotive Force
  • Energy Consideration: A Quantitative Study
  • Eddy Currents
  • Inductance
  • Mutual Inductance Self Inductance AC Generator
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • AC Voltage applied to a Resistor
  • Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors- Phasors
  • AC Voltage applied to an Inductor
  • AC Voltage applied to a Capacitor
  • AC Voltage applied to a Series LCR Circuit
  • Phasor-diagram solution Resonance Power in AC Circuit: The Power Factor
  • LC Oscillations
  • Transformers
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Displacement Current
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Sources of Electromagnetic Waves Nature of Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Radio waves Microwaves Infrared waves Visible rays Ultraviolet rays X-rays Gamma rays Summary
  • Introduction
  • Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors
  • Sign convention Focal length of spherical mirrors The Mirror Equation Refraction
  • Total Internal Reflection
  • Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses
  • Refraction by a lens Power of a lens Combination of thin lenses in contact Refraction through a Prism
  • Dispersion by a Prism
  • Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight
  • The Rainbow Scattering of light Optical Instruments
  • The Eye The Microscope Telescope Summary
  • Introduction
  • Huygens Principle
  • Refraction and Reflection of Plane Waves using Huygens Principle
  • Reflection of a Plane Wave by a Plane Surface The Doppler Effect Coherent and incoherent Addition of Waves
  • Interference of Light Waves and Young s Experiment
  • Diffraction
  • The single slit Resolving Power of Pptical Instruments Summary
  • Polarisation
  • Polarisation by Scattering
  • Polarisation by Reflection
  • Introduction
  • Electron Emission
  • Phototelectric Effect
  • Hallwachs' and Lenard's observations Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect
  • Effect of potential on photoelectric current Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light
  • Einstein's Photoelctric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation
  • Particle Nature of Light: The photon
  • Wave Nature of Matter
  • Davisson and Germer Experiment
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Alpha-Particle Scattering and Rutherford s Nuclear Model of Atom
  • Alpha-particle trajectory Electron orbits Atomic Spectra
  • Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom
  • Energy levels The Line Spectra of Hydrogen Atom
  • De Broglie s Explanation of Bohr s Second Postulate of Quantisation
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Atomic Massesand Composition of Nucleus
  • Size of the Nucleus
  • Mass - Energy Nuclear Binding Energy Nuclear Force
  • Radioactivity
  • Alpha decay Beta decay Gamma decay Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclear Reactor Nuclear fusion Energy Generation in Stars Summary
  • Introduction
  • Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors
  • Intrinsic Semiconductor
  • Extrinsic Semiconductor
  • p-n Junction
  • Semiconductor Diode
  • p-n junction diode under forward bias p-n junction diode under reverse bias Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier
  • Special Purpose of p-n Junction Diodes
  • Zener diode Optoelectronic junction devices Junction Transistor
  • Basic transistor circuit configurations and transistor characteristics Transistor as an Amplifier (CE-Configuration) Feedback amplifier and transistor oscillator Digital Electronics and Logic Gates
  • Integrated Circuits
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Elements of a Communication System
  • Basic Terminology used in Electronic Communication Systems
  • Bandwidth of Signals
  • Bandwidth of Transmission Medium
  • Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
  • Modulation and its Necessity
  • Amplitude Modulation
  • Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave
  • Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave
  • Summary

Chemistry

Conductors

Chemistry

Effects of Hydration Energy and Temperature

Chemistry

Working of Electrochemical Cell

Topics Covered

  • Introduction
  • Amorphous and Crystalline Solids
  • Classification of Crystalline Solids
  • Molecular Solids Ionic Solids Covalent or Network Solids Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
  • Primitive and centered Unit cell Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell
  • Body- Centred Cubic Unit Cell Face-Centred Cubic Unit Cell Close Packed Structures
  • Formula of a Compound and Number of Voids Packing Efficiency
  • Packing Efficiency in hcp and ccp Structures Efficiency of Packing in Body-Centred Cubic Structures Packing Efficiency in Simple Cubic Lattice Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions
  • Imperfections in Solids
  • Types of Point Defects Electrical Properties
  • Conduction of Electricity in Metals and in Semiconductors Magnetic Properties
  • Summary
  • Types of Solutions
  • Expressing Concentration of Solutions
  • Solubility
  • Solubility of a Solid in a Liquid Solubility of a Gas in a Liquid Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions
  • Vapour pressure of Liquid Solutions Raoult s Law as a special case of Henry s Law Vapour Pressure of solutions of Solids in liquids Ideal and Non ideal Solutions
  • Ideal Solutions Non- Ideal Solutions Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass
  • Relative Lowering of Vapour Pressure Elevation of Boiling point Depression of Feezing Point Osmosis and Osmotic pressure Reverse Osmosis and Water Purification Abnormal Molar Masses
  • Summary
  • Electrochemical Cells
  • Galvanic Cells
  • Nernst Equation
  • Equilibrium Constant from Nernst Equation Electrochemical Cell and Gibbs Energy of the Reaction Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions
  • Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis
  • Batteries
  • Fuel Cells
  • Corrosion
  • Summary
  • Rate of a Chemical Reaction
  • Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction
  • Dependence of Rate on Concentration Rate Expression and Rate Constant Order of a Reaction Molecularity of a Reaction Integrated Rate Equations
  • Zero Order Reactions First Order Reactions Half-Life of a Reaction Pseudo First Order Reaction
  • Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction
  • Effect of Catalyst Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions
  • Summary
  • Adsorption
  • Distinction between Adsorption and Absorption Mechanism of Adsorption Types of Adsorption Adsorption Isotherms Applications of Adsorption Catalysis
  • Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis Adsorption Theory of Heterogeneous Catalysis Shape Selective Catalysis by Zeolites Enzyme Catalysis Catalysts in Industry Colloids
  • Classification of Colloids
  • Classification based on Physical State of Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium Classification based on Nature of Interaction between Dispersed Phase and Dispersion medium Classification based on Type of Particles of the Dispersed Phase, Multimolecular, Macromolecular and Associated Colloids Preparation of Colloids Purification of Colloidal Solutions Properties of Colloidal Solutions Emulsions
  • Colloids Around Us
  • Summary
  • Occurrence of Metals
  • Concentration of Ores
  • Magnetic Seperation Froth Floatation Method Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore
  • Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy
  • Applications Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy
  • Oxidation Reduction
  • Refining
  • Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron
  • Summary
  • Group 15 Elements
  • Physical Properties Chemical Properties Dinitrogen
  • Ammonia
  • Oxides of Nitrogen
  • Nitric Acid
  • Phosphorus - Allotropic Forms
  • Phosphine
  • Phosphorus Halides
  • Phosphorus Pentachloride Oxoacids of Phosphorus
  • Group 16 Elements
  • Physical Properties Chemical Properties Dioxygen
  • Simple Oxides
  • Ozone
  • Sulphur - Allotropic Forms
  • Sulphur Dioxide
  • Oxoacids of Sulphur
  • Sulphuric Acid
  • Group 17 Elements
  • Physical Properties Chemical Properties Chlorine
  • Hydrogen Chloride
  • Oxoacids of Halogens
  • Interhalogen Compounds
  • Group 18 Elements
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Electronic Configuration of the d-Block Elements
  • General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)
  • Oxidation States Magnetic Properties Formation of Coloured Ions Formation of Complex Compounds Catalytic Properties Formation of Interstitial Compounds Alloy Formation Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements
  • The Inner Transition Elements ( f-BLOCK)
  • The Lanthanoids The Actinoids
  • Ionic Sizes Oxidation States General Characteristics and Comparison with Lanthanoids Summary
  • Werner's Theory of Coordination Compounds
  • Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds
  • Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds
  • Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
  • Bonding in Coordination Compounds
  • Valence Bond Theory Limitations of Valence Bond Theory Crystal Field Theory Colour in Coordination Compound Stability of Coordination Compounds
  • Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds
  • Summary
  • Classification
  • Nomenclature
  • Nature of C-X Bond
  • Methods of Preparation
  • From Hydrocarbons Halogen Exchange Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Polyhalogen Compounds
  • Summary
  • Classification
  • Nomenclature
  • Structures of Functional Groups
  • Alcohols and Phenols , Preparation of Alcohols
  • Preparation of Alcohols Preparation of Phenols Physical Properties Chemical Reactions Some Commercially Important Alcohols
  • Ethers
  • Summary
  • Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group
  • Structure of the Carbonyl Group Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group
  • Structure of Carboxyl Group Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
  • Physical properties
  • Uses of Carboxylic Acids
  • Summary
  • Chemical Reactions of Carboxylic Acids
  • Reactions Involving Cleavage of O?H Bond Reactions Involving Cleavage of C?OH Bond Reactions Involving ?COOH Group
  • Structure of Amines
  • Classification
  • Nomenclature
  • Preparation of Amines
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Method of Preparation of Diazoniun Salts
  • Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds
  • Summary
  • Carbohydrates
  • Classification of carbohydrates Monosaccharides Preparation of Glucose Cyclic Structure of Glucose Structure of Fructose Disaccharides Sucrose Maltose Lactose Polysaccharides Importance of Carbohydrates Proteins
  • Amino Acids Structure of Proteins Denaturation of Proteins Enzymes
  • Mechanism of Enzyme Action Vitamins
  • Classification of Vitamins Nucleic Acids
  • Structure of Nucleic Acids Biological Functions of Nucleic Acids Summary
  • Classification of Polymers
  • Classification Based on Source Classification Based on Structure of Polymers Classification Based on Mode of Polymerisation Classification Based on Molecular Forces Types of Polymerisation Reactions
  • Rubber Molecular Mass of Polymers
  • Biodegradable Polymers
  • Polymers of Commercial Importance
  • Summary
  • Drugs and their Classification
  • Classification of Drugs Drug-Target Interaction
  • Enzymes as Drug Targets Drug-Target Interaction
  • Receptors as Drug Targets Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs
  • Antacids Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs
  • Antihistamines Neurologically Active Drugs Antimicrobials Antifertility Drugs Chemicals in Food
  • Artificial Sweetening Agents Chemicals in Food
  • Food Preservatives Cleansing Agents
  • Soaps Summary

Biology

Double Fertilization

Biology

Mechanism of Replication

Biology

Tissue Culture

Topics Covered

  • Asexual Reproduction
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Pre-fertilisation Events Fertilisation Post-fertilisation Events Summary
  • Flower A Fascinating Organ Of Angiosperms
  • Pre-Fretilisation: Structures and Events
  • Stamen, Microsporangium and Pollen Grain The Pistil, Megasporangium (ovule) and Embryo sac Pollination Double Fertilisation
  • Post- Fertilisation : Structures and Events
  • Embryo Seed Summary
  • The Male Reproductive System
  • The Female Reproductive System
  • Gametogenesis
  • Menstural Cycle
  • Fertilisation and Implantation
  • Pregnancy and Embryonic Development
  • Parturition and Lactation
  • Summary
  • Reproductive health- Problems and Strategies
  • Population Explosion and Birth Control
  • Medical Termination of Pregnancy(MTP)
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS)
  • Infertility
  • Summary
  • Mendels Law of Inheritance
  • Inheritance of One Gene
  • Incomplete Dominance and Co-dominance Inheritance of Two Genes
  • Law of Independent Assortment Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance Linkage and Recombination Sex Determination
  • Sex Determination in Humans Mutation
  • Genetic Disorders
  • Pedigree Analysis Mendelian Disorders Chromosomal disorders Summary
  • The DNA
  • Structure of Polynucleotide Chain Packaging of DNA Helix The Search for Genetic Material
  • The Genetic Material is DNA Properties of Genetic Material (DNA versus RNA) RNA World
  • Replication
  • The Experimental Proof The Machinery and the EnzymesThe Machinery and the Enzymes Transcription
  • Transcription Unit and the Gene Types of RNA and the process of Transcription Genetic Code
  • Mutations and Genetic Code tRNA the Adapter Molecule Translation
  • Regulation of Gene Expression
  • The Lac operon Human Genome Project
  • Salient Features of Human Genome DNA Fingureprinting
  • Summary
  • Origin of Life
  • Evolution of Life Forms - A Theory
  • What are the Evidences For Evolution?
  • What is Adaptive Radiation?
  • Biological Evolution
  • Mechanism of Evolution
  • Hardy-Weinberg Principle
  • A Brief Account of Evolution
  • Origin and Evolution of Man
  • Summary
  • Common Diseases in Humans
  • Immunity
  • Innate Immunity Acquired Immunity Active and Passive Immunity Vaccination and Immunisation Allergies Auto Immunity Immune System in the Body Aids
  • Cancer
  • Drugs and Alcohol Abuse
  • Summary
  • Animal Husbandry
  • Management of Farms and Farm Animals Poultry Farm Management Animal Breeding Bee-keeping Fisheries Plant Breeding
  • What is Plant Breeding? Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality Single Cell Protein (SCP)
  • Tissue Culture
  • Summary
  • Microbes in Household products
  • Microbes in Industrial products
  • Antibiotics Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules Microbes in Sewage Treatment
  • 10.4 Microbes in Production of Biogas
  • 10.5 Microbes in Biocontrol Agents
  • 10.6 Microbes or Biofertilisers
  • Summary
  • Principles of Biotechnology
  • Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Restriction Enzymes Cloning Vectors Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA) Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Summary
  • Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
  • Biotechnical Applications in Medicine
  • Genetically Engineered Insulin Gene Therapy Molecular Diagnosis Transgenic Animals
  • Ethical Issues
  • Summary
  • Organism and its Environment
  • Major Abiotic Factors Responses to Abiotic Factors Adaptations Populations
  • Population Attributes Population Growth Life History Variation Population Interactions Summary
  • Ecosystem- Struture and Function
  • Productivity
  • Decomposition
  • Energy Flow
  • Ecological Pyramids
  • Ecological Succession
  • Succession of Plants Nutrient Cycling
  • Ecosystem Carbon Cycle Ecosystem Phosphorus Cycle Ecosystem Services
  • Summary
  • Biodiversity
  • How Many Species are there on Earth and How Many in India? Patterns of Biodiversity The importance of Species Diversity to the Ecosystem Loss of Biodiversity Biodiversity Conservation
  • Why Should We Conserve Biodiversity? How do we conserve Biodiversity? Summary
  • Air Pollution and its Control
  • Controlling Vehicular Air Pollution: A Case Study of Delhi Water Pollution and its Control
  • Domestic Sewage and Industrial Effluents A Case Study of Integrated Waste Water Treatment Solid Wastes
  • Case Study of Remedy for Plastic Waste Agro- Chemicals and their Effects
  • Case Study of Organic Farming Radio Active Wastes
  • Green House Effect and Global Warming
  • Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
  • Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance
  • Deforestation
  • Summary

Mathematics

Addition of Vectors - Properties of Vector Addition

Mathematics

Increasing and Decreasing Functions

Mathematics

Some Basic Concepts

Topics Covered

  • Introduction
  • Types of Relations
  • Types of Functions
  • Composition of Functions and Invertible Function
  • Binary Operations
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Basic Concepts
  • Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Matrix
  • Order of a matrix Types of Matrices
  • Equality of matrices Operations on Matrices
  • Addition of matrices Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar Properties of matrix addition Properties of scalar multiplication of a matrix Multiplication of matrices Properties of multiplication of matrices Transpose of a Matrix
  • Properties of transpose of the matrices Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices
  • Elementary Operation (Transformation) of a Matrix
  • Invertible Matrices
  • Inverse of a matrix by elementary operations Summary
  • Introduction
  • Determinant
  • Properties of Determinants
  • Area of a Triangle
  • Minors and Cofactors
  • Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix
  • Adjoint of a matrix Applications of Determinants and Matrices
  • Solution of system of linear equations using inverse of a Matrix Summary
  • Introduction
  • Continuity
  • Algebra of continuous functions Differentiability
  • Derivatives of composite functions Derivatives of implicit functions Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
  • Logarithmic Differentiation
  • Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms
  • Second Order Derivative
  • Mean Value Theorem
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Rate of Change of Quantities
  • Increasing and Decreasing Functions
  • Tangents and Normals
  • Approximations
  • Maxima and Minima
  • Maximum and Minimum Values of a Function in a Closed Interval Summary
  • Introduction
  • Integration as an Inverse Process of Differentiation
  • Some properties of indefinite integral Comparison between differentiation and integration Methods of Integration
  • Integrals of Some Particular Functions
  • Integration by Partial Fractions
  • Integration by Parts
  • Integral of the type Definite Integral
  • Definite integral as the limit of a sum Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
  • Some Properties of Definite Integrals
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Area under Simple Curves
  • The area of the region bounded by a curve and a line Area between Two Curves
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Basic Concepts
  • General and Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation
  • Formation of a Differential Equation whose General Solution is given
  • Methods of Solving First Order, First Degree Differential Equations
  • equations with variables separable Homogeneous differential equations Linear differential equations Summary
  • Introduction
  • Some Basic Concepts
  • Types of Vectors
  • Addition of Vectors
  • Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
  • Components of a Vector Vector joining two Points Section Formula Product of Two Vectors
  • Projection of a vector on a line Vector (or cross) product of two vectors Scalar (or dot) product of two vectors Summary
  • Introduction
  • Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Line
  • Relation between the direction cosines of a line Direction cosines of a line passing through two points Equation of a Line in Space
  • Equation of a line through a given point and parallel to a given vector b Equation of a line passing through two given points Angle between Two Lines
  • Shortest Distance between Two Lines
  • Distance between two skew lines Distance between parallel lines Plane
  • Equation of a plane in normal form Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point Plane passing through the intersection of two given planes Intercept form of the equation of a plane Coplanarity of Two Lines
  • Angle between Two Planes
  • Distance of a point from a plane
  • Angle between a Line and a Plane
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Linear Programming Problem and its Mathematical Formulation
  • Mathematical formulation of the problem Graphical method of solving linear programming problems Different Types of Linear Programming Problems
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Conditional Probability
  • Properties of conditional probability Multiplication Theorem on Probability
  • Independent Events
  • Bayes Theorem
  • Partition of a sample space and Theorem of total probability Random Variables and its Probability Distributions
  • Probability distribution of a random variable Mean of a random variable Variance of a random variable Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution
  • Bernoulli trials Binomial distribution Summary
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