Mathematics

Numbers on the abacus

Mathematics

Pictorial representation of data

Mathematics

Pictorial representation of data

Topics Covered

Bigger Smaller
Shapes around us
Movements
Inside and outside
Nearer and farther
On and under
Above and below
Top and bottom
Before and After
Between
Understanding Shapes
Introduction
Number names
Counting 1 to 9
Concept of zero
Introduction
Addition
Introduction
Subtraction
Introduction
Numbers from 10 to 20
Group of tens and ones
Introduction
Time
clock
Minu s day
Introduction
Longer and Shorter
Big and Small
Tall and short
Thick and Thin
Heavy and light
Measurement
Introduction
Numbers from 21 to 30
Numbers from 31 to 40
Numbers from 41 to 50
Facts about number 21 to 50
Introduction
Data
Pictorial representation of data
Introduction
Patterns
Making Patterns
Pattern Using Numbers
Introduction
Numbers from 51 to 60
Numbers from 61 to 70
Numbers from 71 to 80
Numbers from 81 to 90
Numbers from 91 to 100
Numbers on the abacus
Introduction
Money money
Notes and Coins in India
Introduction
Ordinal Number
How many
Collection

EVS

Healthy eating habits

EVS

More- about animals

EVS

Seeds

Topics Covered

Introduction
Myself
Summary
Introduction
Living Things and Non Living Things
Breathing
Growth
Movement
Food to Grow and to Live
Summary
Introduction
Plant Life
Shrubs
Herbs
Climbers
Creepers
Trees
Parts of a Plant
Roots
Stem
Leaves
Flowers and Fruits
Thorns
Seeds
Plants - their Uses
Summary
Introduction
Animal Life
Food of Animals
Homes of Animals
More about Animals
Summary
Introduction
Air Around Us
Air Fills Space
Air has Weight
Air is Needed to Make Things Burn
We Cannot Live Without Air
Animals and Plants Need Air to Live
Water is a Need for Life
Plants Need Water
Animals Need Water
Summary
Introduction
Our Universe
The Sun
The Moon
Stars
Summary
>Introduction
Major Directions
Summary
Introduction
Human Body
Sense Organs
Eyes
Ears
Nose
Tongue
Skin
Your Mouth
Your Face
Your Hands
Hair
Bathing
Summary
Introduction
Plants give us Food
Animals give us Food
Protective Food
Vegetarians and Non-vegetarians
Summary
Introduction
Clothes we wear during Summer
Clothes we wear during Rainy season
Clothes we wear during Winter
Summary
Introduction
Exercise
Good Habits
More Good Habits
Healthy Eating Habits
Play
Sleep
We Need Pure Air to Breathe
We Need Pure Water to Drink
We Need Clothes to Cover Our Body
Summary
Introduction
House
Types of Houses
We Need a House to Live In
Some Other Shelters
People Engaged in Making Houses
Resting
Summary
Introduction
First Aid
Safety While Playing
Safety While Walking
Traffic Lights
Safety While Swimming
Safety While Riding a Bus
Safety While Handling Fire
Safety While Working with Tools
Summary
Introduction
Large Family
Small Family
Joint Family
Summary
Introduction
Our Neighbourhood
Post Office
Market
Bus Station
Railway Station
Airport
Bank
Hospital
Fire Station
Police Station
Summary
Introduction
Our School
Our Classroom
Our Playground
Summary
Introduction
Celebrations
Festivals
Summary

English

New Words

Enlglish

Trees Fruits

English

The Bubble, the straw and the shoe

Topics Covered

Poem
New Words
Different Kinds of House
Story
New Words
Different types of Animals Lives in Different Shelters
Poem
New Words
Water
Story
New Words
Animal livings on both Land and in Water
Poem
New Words
Face Expressions
Story
New Words
Colour
Poem
New Words
Different kinds of Birds
Story
New Words
Tree and Fruits
Poem
New Words
Merry Go Round
Story
New Words
Circle
Poem
New Words
An Apple
Story
New Words
Parts of a Plant
Story
New Words
Mango
Poem
New Words
Kite Festival
Story
New Words
Making of a Kite
Poem
New Words
Crawling
Story
New Words
The Tiger
Poem
New Words
Clouds
Story
New Words
Rainbow
Poem
New Words
Different kinds of Workers
Story
New Words
Some facts about Elephants

Mathematics

Addition properties

Mathematics

Even and odd Numbers

Mathematics

Subtraction

Topics Covered

Introduction
2D shapes
3D objects
Drawing circle from cylinder and sphere
Introduction
Counting Numbers
Even and odd Numbers
Counting in Groups
Position of objects
Introduction
Weight
Weight balance
Measurements
Two Digit numbers in tens and ones
Group of tens and ones
Expansion of numbers through tens and ones
Making hundreds using abacus
Introduction
Patterns around us
Number Patterns
Making Patterns
Shapes
Understanding Shapes
Plane figures sides and vertices
Shapes with tangrams
Introduction
Capacity
Measurements of Capacity
Place value of two digit numbers
Comparing Numbers
Arranging Ascending order of 2 digit numbers
Arranging Descending order of 2-digit numbers
Comparison of 2 digit numbers
Introduction
Time
Day and week
Months & Years
Seasons
Longer and shorter duration events
Mental Arithmetic
Mental calculation
Sum of Counting Numbers
Straight lines
Curved lines
Difference between straight line and curved line
Line in Pictures
Regrouping of numbers
Addition
Addition of two digit Numbers
Subtraction
Addition of 3 digit numbers
Addition properties
Subtraction of 2 digit numbers
Subtraction of 3 digit numbers
Subtraction properties
Introduction
Length
Units of length
Use of a scale or ruler
Addition of 2 digit numbers with carrying
Addition of 2 digit numbers without carrying
Subtraction of 2 digit numbers with Borrowing
Subtraction of 2 digit numbers without Borrowing
Multiplication
Division
Money
Introduction
Data
Pictorial representation of data
Pictograph

EVS

Means of Transport

EVS

Parts of the plant

EVS

Three forms water

Topics Covered

Introduction
About myself
Summary
Introduction
Different stages of growth in Ninas life
People look different from each other
Summary
Introduction
Parts of the Plant
Trees
Thorny Plants
Herbs
Shrubs
Creepers
Climbers
Plants give us Food
Plants for many things other than Food
Some other uses of Plants
Dried Plants
Plants need Caring
Summary
Introduction
Wild Animals
Wild Animals are of Different Sizes
Natural Shelters
Carnivores
Herbivores
Omnivores
Scavengers
Animals for Food
Animals for other Things
Summary
Introduction
Air is a Mixture of Gases
Air contains Water Vapour
Air has Smoke in it
Air has Germs in it
Air has Dust Particles in it
Wind
Wind has Direction
Wind Force is Useful
Clean and Fresh Air
Summary
Introduction
Three forms of Water
Liquid form of Water
Solid form of Water
Gaseous form of Water
We get Water from many Sources
Drinking Water
We use Water for Various Purposes
All Water is not Clean
We should Clean Water before use
Water Cycle
Summary
Introduction
Shadow
Shadows change In Direction
Summary
Introduction
The sun
The moon
Stars
Summary
Introduction
Air
Water
Waterfalls
Our Earth
Land
Plains
Hills
Mountains
Valleys
Deserts
Lakes
Save the Earth
Summary
Introduction
Seasons
Summer
Monsoon
Winter
Summary
Introduction
Major Directions
Map
Time
Summary
Introduction
Story of Wheels
Summary
Introduction
Exercise
Body Posture
Sense Organs
Your Eyes
Your Ears
Your Nose
Your Skin
Your Tongue
Important parts inside our body
Face
Bones
Muscles
Summary
Introduction
Healthy eating Habits
Energy giving Food
Body building Food
Food we Eat
Protective Food
Food Hygiene
Plants give us Food
Food from Animals and Birds
Summary
Introduction
Different kinds of Clothes in India
Clothes worn in Special Jobs
Clothes we wear during Rainy Season
Clothes we wear during Summer
Clothes we wear during Winter
Silk
Care of Clothes
Summary
Introduction
Exercise
Healthy eating Habits
Play
Sleep
We need pure Air to Breathe
We need pure Water to Drink
Good Food Habits
We need good Food to Keep us Healthy
More good Habits
Good Habits at Home
Toilet Manners
Summary
Introduction
An Ideal House
A Pucca House
Caves
Houses in Villages
Houses in Towns and Cities
Type of Houses
Bungalows
Flats
Caravan
Roofs
People engaged In Making Houses
Summary
Introduction
First Aid
Safety at Home
Safety while Handling Fire
Safety on the Road
Traffic Lights
Safety while Travelling by Bus
Safety in a Car
Safety on the Bicycle
Safety while Swimming
Safety while Playing
Safety while Working with Tools
Helping Others
Summary
Introduction
My Family
Nuclear Family
Large Family
Joint Family
Summary
Introduction
Our Neighbourhood
Schools/Colleges
Post Office
Police Station
Bus Stop
Railway Station
Fire Fighters
The Hospital
Market
Bank
Summary
Introduction
Means of Transport
Roadways
Railways
Waterways
Airways
Summary
Introduction
Places of Worship
Summary
Introduction
Celebrations
Festivals
National Festivals
Religious Festivals
Harvest Festivals
Summary

English

New Words

English

Safety rules at school

English

The Magic porridge pot

Topics Covered

Poem
New Words
Safety rules at School
Story
New Words
Giraffe
Poem
New Words
The Padding Boat
Poem
New Words
Famous Bells
Poem
New Words
Personal Hygiene
Poem
New Words
Animals in Action
Poem
New Words
Kangaroo
Story
New Words
Animals in Groups
Poem
New Words
Have a good Smile
Story
New Words
The Sun
Poem
New Words
Smile
Poem
New Words
How is the Rain Formed
Story
New Words
Intresting Facts about Snails
Poem
New Words
Indoor Games
Poem
New Words
Different Zones in India
Story
New Words
Interesting Facts about Rabbits
Poem
New Words
Clown
Poem
New Words
ZigZag Walk
Story
New words
Teddy Bear
Poem
New Words
People engaged in Building Houses
Story
New Words
Raja Birbal
Story
New Words
Computer Mouse
Poem
New Words
Musical Instruments
Story
New Words
Jaltarang
Poem
New Words
Interjection
Poem
New Words
Relationships
Story
New Words
Porridge
Poem
New Words
Animals Sounds
Story
New Words
Sound Produced by a Grasshopper
Poem
New Words
Owl

Mathematics

Comparing weights

Mathematics

Division

Multiplication

Division

Topics Covered

Introduction
2D Shapes
3D Shapes
Symmetry
Numbers
Counting Numbers
Even and odd numbers
Ascending and descending order of numbers
Place value
Four Digit Numbers
Counting thousands
Comparing numbers
Introduction
Addition
Subtraction
Estimation
Problems on addition
Introduction
Measurement of length
Units of length
Ruler for measuring length
Conversion of Units
Fun with shapes
Sides and Vertices
Tangram
Tiling shapes
Lines
Polygons
Addition of Numbers with regrouping
Subtraction of numbers with borrowing
Addition using place value
Introduction
Time
Am and Pm
Calendar
Introduction
Weights
Units of weight
Comparision of weights
Conversion of units
Introduction
Multiplication
Multiplication by 2 digit numbers
Multiplication by 10,100 and 1000
Properties of Multiplication
Multiplication Facts
Problems on Multiplication
Column multiplication
Introduction
Patterns everywhere
Making Patterns
Number Patterns
Patterns in Multiplication
Introduction
Capacity
Units of capacity
Comparing Capacity
Conversion of units
Introduction
Equal sharing
Division
Short Division
Long division
Mental Arithmetic
Introduction
Data
Pictorial representation of data
Tally marks
Pictograph
Introduction
Money
Currency Facts
Conversion of Rupees and paise
Making bills
Making coins and notes

EVS

Components of an environment

EVS

Sunlight

EVS

Water supply at our homes

Topics Covered

Introduction
Environment
Animals
Birds
Habitat of Animals & Birds
Sounds and Movements of Animals and Birds
Summary
Introduction
Plants
Trees
Summary
Introduction
Uses of Water
Water-more or less
Water from where
Colours
Summary
Introduction
Family
Relationships
Summary
Introduction
Different types of Houses
Home Sweet Home
Summary
Introduction
Variety of Food
Food Functions
Birds
Identifying the birds
Types of beaks and feathers of birds
Watering Plants
Plants
Rain
Clouds
Rainbow
Cooking
Things that are eaten raw and cooked
Coal
Wood and Cowdung cakes
Sunlight
Introduction
The Train
The Different modes of transport
Summary
Work Done by different people
buildings and the work done in them
Family
Relationships
Braille Script
Family & Relationships
Where does what we eat come from?
Games
Indoor games
Introduction
Means of Communication
Post Office
Letters
Summary
Introduction
Types of Houses
Houses in Hilly areas
House of snow (Igloo)
Birds
Pets
Water
Sources of Water
Rain Water Harvesting
Water should be used wisely
Diversity in the families
Relationships
Family Tree
Introduction
Directions
Location Maps
Symbols for Location Maps
Summary
Introduction
Types of clothes
From thread to cloth
Summary
Food web
Food chain

English

New Words

English

Butterflies

English

The ship of the desert

Topics Covered

Poem
New Words
Good Morning
New Words
Story
Mughal Gardens
Poem
New Words
Bird Talk
Story
New Words
Birds Arround Us
How does a Seed Grows
Poem
New Words
Story
New Words
Turnip
Poem
New Words
Shells
Story
New Words
Ornamental Fish
Hot Air Balloon
New Words
Poem
Story
New Words
Butterflies
Poem
New Words
Trains
Road Safety
Story
New Words
New Words
Dog Breeds
Poem
Story
New Words
Interesting Facts about Tiger
Poem
New Words
Journey of a Letter
Story
New Words
Raksha Bandhan
Poem
New Words
Giants in Nature
Story
New Words
Helping Special Children
Poem
New Words
How creatures move
Story
New Words
The ship of the desert

Mathematics

Area

Mathematics

Fraction- part of a whole

Mathematics

Mass

Topics Covered

Shapes
Shapes with tangrams
Tiling Tessellating Shapes
Nets for building 3-D shapes
Numbering system
Measurement of length
Measures of length
Conversion of Length
Addition and Subtraction with Conversion
Problems on metres and centimetres
Multiplication
Multiplication Tables
Estimation
Mental calculation
Introduction
Time
AM and PM
Dates
The 24 Hour clock
Duration of time
Maps
Objects
View of objects
position of objects
Money
Rupees and paise
Conversion of Rupees and Paise
Finding unit and multiple costs
Shopping
Capacity
Measures of capacity
Volume
Addition and Subtraction by Conversion
Conversion of Standard Unit of Capacity
Circle
Elements of a circle
Drawing circles
Introduction
Fractions
Fraction- part of a whole
Types of fractions
Equivalent fractions
Patterns around us
Patterns
Geometrical pattern based on symmetry
Number Patterns
Patterns in multiplication and division
Making Patterns
Addition
Subtraction
Multiplication
Division
Estimation
Weights
Mass
Measurements
Introduction
Area
Perimeter
Square and Rectangle
Finding Area and perimeter using formula
Introduction
Data Handling
Pictograph
Bar graph

EVS

Control of Water Pollution

EVS

Flowers fruits and seeds

EVS

Photosynthesis

Topics Covered

Means of transport
Bicycle ride
Introduction
Wild Animals
Elephants
Animals that live in groups
Introduction
Trees in Danger
The Village Panchayat
Summary
School
Bee-keeping
Railways
Train
Means of Transport
Land Transport
Animal means of Transport
Water Transport
Air transport
Introduction
Different kinds of Transport
Land Transport
Train
Summary
Family
Relationships
Games
Indoor games
Flowers and fruits
Functions of flowers
The World of Flowers
Home sweet Home
A Changing House
sources of water
How does Water become Dirty?
Soluble substances
Insoluble Substances
Germination of Seeds
Production of Seeds
Growing Plants
In the Bazaar
Vegetables
Birds
Birds Nest
Bird Feet Different Kind for Different Needs
Bird Beaks ? According to the Food
Animal Teeth
Introduction
Water, Water
Types of Houses
Comparison of Houses in Town and Village
Care of House
Summary
Introduction
Water
Water pollution
Disease caused due to drinking dirty water
Control of water pollution
Summary
Introduction
Plants
Herbs
Shrubs
Trees
Parts of a plant
Roots
Stem
Leaves
Summary
Introduction
Religious Festivals
National Festivals
Celebrating Bihu
Summary
Harvest Festivals
Clothes
From thread to Cloth
Climate
Trees and plants
Deserts

English

New Words

English

Noses

English

The scholar's mather tongue

Topics Covered

Poem
New Words
Wake Up Early
Story
New Words
Biological Clock
Poem
New Words
Noses
Story
New Words
Adaptation of Trees
Poem
New Words
Poem
New Words
Exercise
Story
New Words
Archery
Poem
New Words
Tell me Why
Story
New Words
Alice in Wonderland
Poem
New Words
Why do Onions make us Cry
Poem
New Words
Phobia
Story
New Words
Sign Language
Poem
New Words
Abraham Lincoln
Poem
New Words
Donkey
Poem
New Words
Care for your Pets
Story
New Words
Cow
Story
New words
Protect Animals
Poem
New Words
Wigwams
Story
New Words
Birbal
Poem
New Words
Watering Plants
Story
New Words
Coconut Tree
Poem
New Words
Tansen
Poem
New Words
Library
Story
New Words
Books
Poem
New Words
Information about Scotland
Story
New Words
Puppets

Mathematics

Angles

Mathematics

Construction of an Angle using Protractor

Mathematics

Polygons

Topics Covered

Shapes
Weights
Number System
Capacity
Estimations
Large numbers
Time
Money
Roman Numerals
Line, Ray and Line segment
Triangle
Circles
Angles
Type of Angles
Uses of Ruler, Protractor and set squares
Measuring Angles
Quadrilaterals
Polygons
Introduction to Area and perimeter
Perimeter
Area
Finding Area
Parts of a whole
Types of Fractions
Fractions
Ascending and descending order of fractions
Reciprocal of fractions
Unit of fractions
Comparison of fractions
Conversion of fractions
Estimated fractions
Make your Pattern
Mirror Halves
Line of Symmetry
Symmetry
Rotational Symmetry
Multiples
Prime and composite numbers
Common Multiples
Factors
Common Factors
Highest Common Factor
Prime factorisation
Lowest Common Multiple
Co-prime numbers
Divisibility Test
Look for a Pattern
Patterns
Even and odd Number patterns
Square and Triangluar Numbers
Number Patterns
Introduction to Maps
Maps
Type of maps
Signs and Symbols
Directions
2 Dimensional Shapes
3 Dimensional Shapes
Nets for making 3D Model
Drawing 3d objects in 2D
Drawing 2d shapes using 3d Objects
Rotation and Reflection of 2D shapes
Decimals
Operations of Decimals
Expansion of Decimals
Comparision of Decimals
Representing decimal fractions
Metric system of Measurements
Basic Units used in metric System
Conversion of metric units
Converting metric units to Decimals
Percentages
Area
Perimeter
Area of Parallogram
Data
Collection and Organizing of Data
Making Tally Marks
Bar graphs
Pictograph
Graphical representation of data
Maniratnam
Multiplication
Multiplication by lattice algorithm
Patterns in multiplication
Division
Solids
Volume
Volume of cube
Volume of cuboid
Mass
Lengths

EVS

Force of gravitation

EVS

Germination of seeds

EVS

Solutions

Topics Covered

Introduction
Sense Organs
The Eyes
The Ears
The Nose
The Tongue
The Skin
Tigers
Snakes
First aid for snake bites
Introduction
Digestive system
Stomach
Good food, good health
Body building food
Energy giving food
Food and hygiene
Microorganisms Introduction
Occurence of Microbes
Harmful Bacteria
Food Poisoning
Food Preservation
Introduction
Sprouting of seeds
How does a big plant grow from a tiny seed?
Seeds of fruits
What is inside a seed?
Reproduction in plants
Seed dispersal
Introduction
Sources of water
Flood
Drought
Water pollution and its causes
Water harvesting
Density
Soluble substances
Insoluble Substances
Solutions
Spreading of diseases
Malaria
A bus journey
Treasure from the earth
Petrol
Harmful effects of burning a fuel
Types of houses
Desert
Houses in mountainous regions
Introduction
Breathing
Air
Characteristics of Air
Uses of Air
Summary
Cleanliness
Keeping cleanliness around the house
Keeping the neighbourhood clean
Steps to be taken clean surroundings
Seeds
Vegetables
Growing of crops
Protection of crops
Introduction
Natural Resources
Forest Resources
Heredity
Acquired and Inherited Traits
National Festivals
Dushera
Religious Festivals
Harvest Festivals
Raksha Bandhan
Holi

English

New Words

Enlglish

Robinson Crusoe

Enlglish

Wonderful Waste

Topics Covered

Introduction
Poem
New Words
History of Icecream
Summary
Introduction
Story
New Words
Creativity
Summary
Introduction
Story
New Words
Folk Stories
Summary
Introduction
Poem
New Words
Many hands make light work
Summary
Introduction
Story
New Words
Imporatnce of Timely Action
Summary
Introduction
Story
New Words
Worry often gives a small thing a big shadow
Summary
Introduction
Poem
New Words
About Shadows
Summary
Introduction
Poem
New Words
No pain no gain
Summary
Introduction
Story
New Words
Experience is the best teacher
Summary
Introduction
Poem
New Words
An idle mind is devil's workshop
Summary
Introduction
Story
New Words
Time and tide wait for no man
Summary
Introduction
Poem
New Words
Speech is silver, Silence is golden
Summary
Introduction
Story
New Words
Give knave an inch and they will take a yard
Summary
Introduction
Poem
New Words
Human Mind
Summary
Introduction
Story
New Words
Every cloud has a silver lining
Summary
Introduction
Poem
New Words
Importance of Friendship
Summary
Introduction
Story
New Words
As you sow, so shall you reap
Summary
Introduction
Poem
New Words
Life style in City and Village
Summary
Introduction
Story
New Words
Train Accidents
Summary
Introduction
Poem
New Words
More about Malu Bhalu
Summary
Introduction
Story
New Words
More about Ningthou and Family
Summary

Mathematics

Algebra

Mathematics

Construction of perpendicular bisector of line segment

Mathematics

Proportion

Topics Covered

Introduction
Comparing Numbers
Large Numbers in Practice
Using Brackets
Roman Numerals
Summary
Introduction
Whole Numbers
The Number Line
Properties of Whole Numbers
Patterns in Whole Numbers
Summary
Introduction
Factors and Multiples
Prime and Composite Numbers
Tests for Divisibility of Numbers
Common Factors and Common Multiples
Prime Factorisation
Highest Common Factor
Lowest Common Multiple
Summary
Introduction
A Line Segment
A Line
Intersecting Lines
Parallel Lines
Ray
Curves
Polygons
Angles
Triangles
Quadrilaterals
Circles
Summary
Points
Introduction
Measuring Line Segments
Angles – Right and Straight
Angles Acute,Obtuse and Reflex
Measuring Angles
Perpendicular Lines
Classification of Triangles
Quadrilaterals
Polygons
Three Dimensional Shapes
Summary
Introduction
Integers
Representation of Integers on a number line Ordering of integers Additon of Integers
Addition of Integers on a Number Line Subtraction of Integers with the help of a Number Line
Summary
Introduction
A Fraction
Fraction on the Number Line
Proper Fractions
Equivalent Fractions
Simplest Form of a Fraction
Like Fractions
Addition and Subtraction of Fractions
Adding or subtracting Like fractions Adding and Subtracting Fractions Summary
Introduction
Tenths
Hundredths
Comparing Decimals
Using Decimals
Addition of Numbers with Decimals
Subtraction of Decimals
Summary
Introduction
Recording Data
Organisation of Data
Pictograph
Interpretation of a Pictograph
Drawing a Pictograph
A Bar Graph
Interpretation of a bar graph Drawing a bar graph Summary
Introduction
Perimeter
Perimeter of a Rectangle Perimeter of Regular Shapes Area
Area of a rectangle Area of a square Summary
Introduction
Matchstick Patterns
The Idea of a Variable
Use of Variables in Common Rules
Expressions with Variables
Using Expressions Practically
What is an Equation?
Summary
Introduction
Ratio
Proportion
Unitary Method
Summary
Introduction
Making Symmetric Figures : Ink-blot Devils
Figures with Two Lines of Symmetry
Figures with Multiple (more than two) Lines of Symmetry
Reflection and Symmetry
Summary
Introduction
The Circle
Construction of a Circle when its Radius is known A Line Segment
Construction of a Line Segment of a given Length Perpendiculars
Perpendicular to a Line through a Point on it Perpendicular to a Line through a Point not on it The Perpendicular bisector of a Line Segment Angles
Constructing an Angle of a given measure Constructing a copy of an Angle of unknown measure Bisector of an Angle Angles of Special Measures Summary

Science

Desirable and undesirable changes

Science

Electric circuit

Science

Living things move

Topics Covered

Food Variety
Food Materials and Sources
Plant Parts and Animal Products as Food
What do Animals Eat?
What Do Different Food Items Contain?
What do Various Nutrients do for our Body?
Balanced Diet
Deficiency Diseases
Fibre
Spinning Cotton Yarn
Yarn to Fabric
Knitting History of Clothing Material
Objects Around us
Properties of Materials
Solubility
Methods of Separation
Hand Picking, Winnowing and Sieving Threshing Sedimentation, Decantation and Filtration Evaporation Use of more than one method of separation Can water dissolve any amount of a substance? Summary
Can All Changes Always Be Reversed?
Could There be Other Ways to Bring a Change?
Herbs, Shrubs and Trees
Stem
Leaf
Root
Flower
Human Body and its Movements
Ball and socket joints Pivotal Joint Hinge joints Fixed joints Gait of Animals
Earthworm Snail Cockroach Birds Fish How do snakes move?
Habitat and Adaptation
A Journey Through Different Habitats
Deserts Mountain regions Some Aquatic Habitats oceans Ponds and lakes Do all living things need food Do all living things show growth Do all living things respire Do all living things respond to stimuli Living organisms and excretion Do all living things reproduce their own kind Do all living things move What then is life Characteristics of the Living Beings
Story of Transport
Some measurements
Standard units of measurements
Correct measurement of length
Measuring the Length of a Curved Line
Moving Things Around us
Types of Motion
Transparent, Opaque and Translucent objects
What exactly are Shadows?
A Pinhole Camera
Mirrors and Reflections
Electric Cell
A Bulb connected to an electric cell
An Electric Circuit
Electric Switch
Electric conductors and insulators
How Magnets Were Discovered
Magnetic and Non-magnetic materials
Poles of Magnet
Finding Directions
Make your own Magnet
Attraction and Repulsion between Magnets
A Few Cautions
How much water do we use?
Where do we get water from?
Water cycle
Back to the oceans
What if it Rains heavily?
What happens if it does not rain for a long period?
How can we save Water?
Rainwater Harvesting
Is Air present everywhere around us?
What is Air made up of ?
How does oxygen become available to animals and plants living in water and soil?
How is the Oxygen in the Atmosphere Replaced?
Dealing with garbage
Vermicomposting
Recycling of paper
Plastics ? boon or a curse?

English Grammer

Comparative into Positive

English Grammer

Personal Pronouns

English Grammer

Simple past tense

Topics Covered

Articles
Definite Article
Indefinite Article
Rules Using the
Nouns
Singular and plural nouns
Pronouns
More on Pronouns
Personal Pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns
PossessivePronouns
Reflexive Pronouns
Indefinite Pronouns
Verbs
Kinds of verbs
Transitive verbs
Intransitive verbs
Introduction
Present tenses
Present tense aspects
Simple present tense
Present Continuous
Present perfect tense
Simple past tense
Past tense aspects
Simple past and present perfect tense
Past Perfect
Futurity in English
Future tense aspects
More on future tense
Using will and shall
Definition
Types of Adjectives
As Attributive and Predicative
Degrees
Adjectives Table1
Adjectives Table 2
Adjectives Table 3
Comparative form with To
Comparative into Positive
Superlative into Positive
Adjectives from Noun and verb
Conversation 1
Conversation 2
Special Adjectives
Examples
Introduction
Kinds of adverbs
Examples
Introduction
Subject, Predicate,Object
what is an object?
Examples of objects
Examples of subject and predicates 1
Examples of subject and predicate 2
Introduction
Objects of preposition 1
Objects of preposition 2
Prepositions with adjectives
Prepositions with forms of transport
Place and direction
Place and time
Examples
Conjunctions
Although
As
Because
Despite
Inspite of
But
Neither nor
SO
Unless
While
Yet

English Grammar

Reflexive Pronouns

English Grammar

Simple Past Present Perfect Tense

English Grammar

Singular plural nouns

Topics Covered

Introduction
Present tenses
Present tense aspects
Simple present tense
Present Continuous
Present perfect tense
Past tense aspects
Past perfect
Simple past and present perfect tense
Futurity in English
Future tense aspects
More on future tense
Using will and shall
Introduction
Kinds of adverbs
Examples
Definition
Types of Adjectives
As Attributive and Predicative
Degrees
Adjectives Table1
Adjectives Table 2
Adjectives Table 3
Comparative form with To
Comparative into Positive
Superlative into Positive
Adjectives from Noun and verb
Conversation 1
Conversation 2
Special Adjectives
Examples
Introduction
Subject, Predicate,Object
what is an object?
Examples of objects
Examples of subject and predicate 1
Examples of subject and predicate 2
Introduction
Active & Passive Voice
Example
Introduction
Question tags
Seldom, Rarely etc
Introduction
Reporting commands
Reporting questions
Reporting statements
Pronouns introduction
More on pronouns
Personal pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns
Possessive Pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns
Indefinite Pronouns
Basic forms of Be
'Be' used with Will, May, Can etc
Positive, Negative and Question Modes
Introduction
Objects of preposition 1
Objects of preposition 2
Prepositions with adjectives
Prepositions with forms of transport
Place and direction
Place and time
Examples
Although
As
Because
Despite
Inspite of
But
neither nor
SO
Unless
While
yet
Common conjunctions

Science

Elcetric bell

Science

Pollination

Science

Preparation of bases

Topics Covered

Mode of Nutrition in Plants
Photosynthesis ? Food making process in Plants
Other modes of Nutrition in Plants
Saprotrophs
How Nutrients are Replenished in the Soil
Summary
Different Ways of Taking Food
Digestion in Humans
The Mouth and Buccal Cavity The foodpipe/oesophagus The Stomach The Small Intestine Absorption in the Small Intestine Large Intestine Digestion in Grass-eating Animals
Feeding and Digestion in Amoeba
Wool
Animals that yield Wool From Fibres to Wool Silk
Hot and Cold
Measuring Temperature
Laboratory Thermometer
Transfer Of Heat
Summary
Acids and Bases
Natural Indicators Around Us
Neutralisation
Neutralisations in Everyday Life
Summary
Physical Changes
Chemical Changes
Rusting of Iron
Crystallisation
Weather
Climate
Climate and Adaptation
The Tropical Rainforests
Air Exerts Pressure
High Speed Winds are Accompanied by Reduced Air Pressure
Air Expands onHeating
Wind Currents are Generated due to Uneven Heating on the
Thunderstorms and Cyclones
Summary
Soil Teeming with life
Soil Profile
Soil Types
Properties of Soil
Absorption of water by Soil
Soil and Crops
Summary
Why do We Respire?
Breathing
How do We Breathe?
What do We Breathe out?
Breathing in other Animals
Breathing under Water
Do plants also respire?
Circulatory system
Blood Blood vessels Heart Heartbeat Excretion In Animals
Excretory System in Humans Transport of Substances in Plants
Summary
Modes of reproduction
Asexual Reproduction Vegetative propagation Budding Fragmentation Spore formation Sexual Reproduction
Pollination Fertilisation Fruits and Seed formation
Seed Dispersal
Slow or Fast
Speed
Measurement of Time
Measuring Speed
Distance-Time Graph
Symbols of Electric Components
Heating Effect of Electric Current
Magnetic Effect of Electric Current
Electromagnet
Electric Bell
Light Travels Along a Straight Line
Reflection of Light
Playing With Spherical Mirrors
Images formed by Lenses
Sunlight White or Coloured
How much Water is available
Forms of water
Groundwater as an important source of water
Depletion of Water Table
Increasing Population, industries and Agricultural activities Distribution of Water
Water Management
What Role you can Play
Effect of Water Scarcity on Plants
Forest
Conservation of forest
Water, our lifeline
What is Sewage?
Water freshens up an eventful journey
Wastewater Treatment Plant (wwtp)
Better house keeping practices

Mathematics

Desirable and undesirable changes

Mathematics

Exterior Angles of Triangle

Mathematics

Properties of Integers

Topics Covered

Introduction
Properties of Addition and Subtraction of Integers
Closure under Addition and Subtraction Commutative Property Associative Property Additive Identity Multiplication of Integers
Multiplication of a Positive and a Negative Integer Multiplication of two Negative Integers Properties of Multiplication of Integers
Closure and Commutative of Multiplication Multiplication by Zero Associativity for Multiplication Distributive Property Division of Integers
Properties of Division of Integers
Summary
Introduction
How well have you learnt about Fractions?
Multiplication of Fractions
Multiplication of a Fraction by a Whole Number Multiplication of a Fraction by a Fraction Division of Fractions
Division of Whole Number by a Fraction Division of a Fraction by a Whole Number Division of a Fraction by Another Fraction How Well have you learnt about Decimal Numbers
Multiplication of Decimal Numbers
Multiplication of Decimal Numbers by 10, 100 and 1000 Division of Decimal Numbers
Division by 10, 100 and 1000 Division of a Decimal Number by a Whole Number Division of a Decimal Number by another Decimal Number Summary
Introduction
Collecting Data
Organisation of Data
Representative Values
Arithmetic mean
Range Mode
Median
Use of Bar Graphs with a Different Purpose
Chance and Probability
Summary
A Mind-reading Game!
Setting up of an Equation
What Equation is?
Solving an Equation More equations
Applications of Simple Equations to Practical Situations
Summary
Introduction
Related Angles
Complementary Angles Supplementary Angles Adjacent Angles Vertically Opposite Angles Pairs of lines
Intersecting Lines Transversal Angles made by a Transversal Transversal of Parallel Lines Checking for Parallel lines
Summary
Introduction
Medians of a Triangle
Altitudes of a Triangle
Exterior angle of a Triangle and its property
Angle Sum Property Of a Triangle
Two Special Triangles : Equilateral and Isosceles
Sum of the Lengths of two Sides of a Triangle
Right-angled Triangles and Pythagoras Property
Summary
Introduction
Congruence of Plane Figures
Congruence of Triangles
Criteria for Congruence of Triangles
SSS Game SAS Game ASA Game Congruence among Right-angled Triangles
Summary
Introduction
Equivalent Ratios
Percentage another way of Comparing Quantities
Meaning of Percentage Converting Percentages to Fractions, Decimals and Numbers Converting Decimals to Percentage Converting Fractions, Decimals and Numbers into Percentage Applications of Percentage Use of Percentages
Increase or Decrease as Per Cent Prices related to an Item or Buying and Selling
Charge given on Borrowed Money or Simple Interest
Interest for Multiple Years Summary
Introduction
What are Rational Numbers?
Positive and Negative Rational Numbers
Rational Numbers in Standard Form
Comparison of Rational Numbers
Rational Numbers between two Rational Numbers
Operations on Rational Numbers
Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Summary
Introduction
Construction of a line Parallel to a given line, through
Construction of Triangles
Constructing a Triangle when the Lengths of its Three Si
Constructing a Triangle when the lengths of two sides an
Constructing a triangle when the measures of two of its
Constructing a right-angled triangle when the length of
Summary
Introduction
Squares and Rectangles
Area of a Parallelogram
Area of a Triangle
Circles
Circumference of a Circle Area of Circle Conversion of Units
Applications
Summary
Introduction
How are expressions formed
Terms of an expression
Like and Unlike terms
Monomials, Binomials, Trinomials and Polynomials
Addition and Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions
Finding the Value of an expression
Using Algebraic Expressions ? formulas and rules
Summary
Introduction
Exponents
Laws of exponents
Multiplying Powers with the Same Base Dividing Powers with the Same Base Taking Power of a Power Multiplying Powers with the Same Exponents Dividing Powers with the Same Exponents Numbers with exponent zero Miscellaneous Examples using the Laws of Exponents
Expressing Large Numbers in the Standard Form
Summary
Introduction
Lines of symmetry for Regular Polygon
Rotational Symmetry
Line symmetry and Rotational symmetry
Summary
Introduction: Plane Figures and Solid Shapes
Faces, Edges and Vertices
Nets for building 3-D shapes
Drawing solids on a flat surface
Viewing Different Sections of a Solid
One Way to View an Object is by Cutting or Slicing Another Way is by Shadow Play A Third Way is by Looking at it from Certain Angles to Get Different Views Summary

Mathematics

A Line Graph

Mathematics

Angle Sum Property

Mathematics

Surface Area of Cylinder

Topics Covered

Introduction
Properties of Rational Numbers
Representation of Rational Numbers on the Number Line
Rational Numbers between Two Rational Numbers
Summary
Introduction
Solving Equations which have Linear Expressions on one Side
Some Applications
Solving Equations having the Variable on both Sides
Some More Applications
Reducing Equations to Simpler Form
Summary
Introduction
Polygons
Classification of polygons
Diagonals
Regular and irregular polygons
Angle sum property
Kinds of Quadrilaterals
Trapezium
Kite
Parallelogram
Diagonals of a parallelogram
Some Special Parallelograms
Rhombus
A rectangle
A square
Introduction
Constructing a Quadrilateral
When the Lengths of Four Sides and a Diagonal are given
When Two Diagonals and Three Sides are given
When Two Adjacent sides and Three Angles are known
When three sides and two included angles are given
Some Special Cases
Summary
Looking for Information
Organising Data
Grouping Data
Bars with a difference Circle Graph or Pie Chart
Chance and Probability
Summary
Introduction
Finding the Square of a Number
Square Roots
Finding square roots Finding square root through repeated subtraction
Finding square root through prime factorisation
Finding square root by division method
Summary
Introduction
Cubes
Smallest multiple that is a perfect cube
Cube Roots
Cube root through prime factorisation method
Summary
Recalling Ratios and Percentages
Finding the Increase or Decrease Per cent
Finding Discounts
Prices Related to Buying and Selling (Profit and Loss)
Finding cost price/selling price, profit percentage/loss percentage Sales Tax/Value Added Tax
Compound Interest
Rate Compounded Annually or Half Yearly(Semi Annually)
Summary
Introduction
What are Expressions
Terms, Factors and Coefficients
Monomials, Binomials and Polynomials
Like and Unlike Terms
Addition and Substraction of Algebraic Expressions
Multiplying a Monomial by a Polynomial
Multiplying a monomial by a Binomial Multiplying a Polynomial by a Polynomial
Multiplying a binomial by a Trinomial
What is an Identity
Standard Identities
Applying Identities
Summary
Introduction
Introduction
Views of 3D-Shapes
Mapping Space Around Us
Faces, Edges and Vertices
Summary
Introduction
Let us Recall
Area of Trapezium
Area of a General Quadrilateral
Solid Shapes
Surface Area of Cube, Cuboid and Cylinder
Volume of Cube, Cuboid and Cylinder
Volume and Capacity
Summary
Introduction
Powers with Negative Exponents
Laws of Exponents
Use of Exponents to Express Small Numbers in Standard Fo
Comparing very large and very small numbers
Introduction
Direct Proportion
Inverse Proportion
Summary
Introduction
What is Factorisation?
Method of common factors Factorisation by regrouping terms Factorisation using Identities Factors of the form ( x + a) ( x + b Division of Algebraic Expressions
Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of Algebraic Expressions continued(Polynomial
Summary
Introduction
A Bar Graph A Pie Graph (or a circle-graph) A Line Graph Linear Graphs
Coordinates Some Applications
Summary
Introduction
Numbers in General Form
Games with Numbers
Letters for Digits
Tests of Divisibility
Summary

Science

Natural gas

Science

Newtons disc

Science

Newtons disc

Topics Covered

Force – A Push or a Pull
Forces are due to an Interaction
Exploring Forces
A Force can Change the State of Motion
Force can Change the Shape of an Object
Contact Forces
Muscular Force Friction Non-contact Forces
Pressure
Pressure exerted by Liquids and Gases
Atmospheric Pressure
Force of Friction
Factors affecting Friction
Friction : A Necessary Evil
Increasing and Reducing Friction
Wheels Reduce Friction
Fluid Friction
Sound is Produced by a Vibrating Body
Sound Produced by Humans
Sound Needs a Medium for Propagation
We hear Sound through Our Ears
Amplitude, Time Period And Frequency Of a Vibration
Audible and Inaudible Sounds
Noise and Music
Noise Pollution
Do Liquids Conduct Electricity?
Chemical Effects of Electric Current
Electroplating
Lightning
Charging by rubbing
Types of Charges and their Interaction
Lightning Safety
Lightning Conductors Earthquakes
What makes Things Visible
Laws of Reflection
Regular and Diffused Reflection
Multiple Images
Sunlight and White or Coloured
What is inside Our Eyes?
Care of Eyes
What is a Braille System?
The Moon
The Moons Surface The Stars
Constellations
The Solar System
The Planets The Sun Mercury (Budh) Venus (Shukra) The Earth Mars (Mangal) Jupiter (Brihaspati) Saturn (Shani) Uranus Neptune Some other members of Solar system
Asteroids Comets Meteors and Meteorites Artificial Satellites

Science

Natural gas

Science

Newtons disc

Science

Newtons disc

Topics Covered

What are Synthetic Fibres?
Types of Synthetic Fibres
Rayon Nylon Polyester Acrylic Characteristics of Synthetic Fibres
Plastics, Plastics as Materials of Choice
Plastics and the Environment
Physical Properties of Metals and Non-metals
Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-metals
Reaction with Oxygen Reaction with Water Reactions with Acids Reactions with Bases Displacement Reactions Uses of Metals and Nonmetals
Coal
Story of Coal Coke Coal tar Coal gas Petroleum and refining of petroleum
Natural Gas
Some Natural Resources are Limited
What is Combustion?
How do We Control Fire?
Types of Combustion
Flame
Structure of a Flame
What is a Fuel?
Burning of Fuels Leads to Harmful Products Fuel Efficiency
Air Pollution
How does Air Get Polluted?
Case study :The Taj Mahal
Greenhouse Effect
What can be Done?
Water Pollution
How does Water Get Polluted?
What is Potable Water and How is Water Purified ?

Science

Natural gas

Science

Newtons disc

Science

Newtons disc

Topics Covered

Agricultural Practices
Kharif Crops and Rabi crops Basic Practices of Crop Production
Preparation of Soil
Sowing
Adding Manure and Fertilisers
Irrigation
Protection from Weeds
Harvesting
Storage
Food from Animals
Microorganisms
Where do Microorganisms Live?
Microorganisms and Us- Commercial and medicinal use
vaccine Harmful Microorganisms
Food Poisoning Food Preservation
Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen cycle
Deforestation and Its Causes
Consequences of Deforestation
Conservation of Forest and Wildlife
Biosphere Reserve
Flora and Fauna
Endemic Species
Wildlife Sanctuary
National Park
Red Data Book
Migration
Reforestation and Recycling of Paper
Discovery of the Cell
The Cell
Organisms show Variety in Cell Number, Shape and Size
Cell Structure and Function
Parts of the Cell
Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
Modes of Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
Male Reproductive Organs Female Reproductive Organs Fertilization Development of Embryo Viviparous and Oviparous Animals Young Ones to Adults Asexual Reproduction
Adolescence and Puberty
Changes at Puberty
Increase in Height Change in Body Shape Voice Change Increased Activity of Sweat and Sebaceous Glands Development of Sex Organs Reaching Mental, Intellectual and Emotional Maturity Secondary Sexual Characters
Role of Hormones in Initiating Reproductive Function
Reproductive Phase of Life in Humans
How is the Sex of the Baby determined?
Hormones other than Sex Hormones
Role of Hormones in completing the Life History of Insec
Reproductive Health
Nutritional Needs of the Adolescents Personal Hygiene Physical exercise Say NO to Drugs

Mathematics

Graph of Linear Equations in Two Variables

Mathematics

Postulates

Mathematics

Volume of a Sphere

Topics Covered

Introduction
Irrational Numbers
Real Numbers and their Decimal Expansions
Representing Real numbers on the Number Line
Operations and Real Numbers
Laws of Exponents for Real Numbers
Summary
Introduction
Polynomials in One Variable
Zeroes of a Polynomial
Remainder Theorem
Factorisation of Polynomials
Algebraic Identities
Summary
Introduction
Cartesian System
Plotting a Point in the Plane if its Coordinates are Given
Summary
Introduction
Linear Equations
Solution of a Linear Equation
Graph of a Linear Equation in Two Variables
Equations of Lines Parallel to the x-axis and y-axis
Summary
Introduction
Euclids Definitions, Axioms and Postulates
Equivalent Versions of Euclids Fifth Postulate
Summary
Introduction
Basic Terms and Definitions
Intersecting Lines and Non-intersecting Lines
Pairs of Angles
Axiom : If a Ray stands on a Line, then the Sum of two Adjacent Angles so formed is 180 Axiom: If the Sum of two Adjacent Angles is 180 degree Theorem : If Two Lines Intersect Each Other, then the Vertically Opposite Angles are Equal. Parallel Lines and a Transversal
Axiom : Each Pair of Corresponding Angle is Equal. Axiom : Pair of Corresponding Angle is Equal, then the Two Lines are Parallel to each other. Theorem : Pair of Alternate Interior Angles is Equal. Theorem : Pair of Interior Angles on the same Side of the Transversal is Supplementary. Angle Sum Property of a Triangle
Theorem:The Sum of the Angles of a Triangle is 180 degree Theorem :Exterior Angle so formed is equal to the Sum of the Two Interior Opposite Angles. Summary
Lines Parallel to the Same Line
Introduction
Congruence of Triangles
Criteria for Congruence of Triangles
Axiom(7.1) SAS congruence rule:Two Triangles are Congruent if Two Sides and the included Angle of one Triangle are equal to the sides and the included Angle of the other Triangle. Theorem(7.1)::ASA congruence rule : Two Triangles are Congruent if Two Angles and the included Side of one Triangle are Equal to Two Angles and the included Side of other Triangle. Some Properties of a Triangle
Theorem(7.2) : Angles Opposite to Equal Sides of an Isosceles Triangle are Equal. Some More Criteria for Congruence of Triangles.
Theorem (7.4) SSS Congruence rule : If Three Sides of One Triangle are equal to the Three Sides of another Triangle, then the Two Triangles are Congruent. Theorem( 7.5) RHS Congruence Rule : If in Two Right Triangles the Hypotenuse and One Side of one Triangle are equal to the Hypotenuse and One side of the other triangle, then the Two Triangles are Con Inequalities in a Triangle
Summary
Introduction
Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral
Types of Quadrilaterals
Properties of a Parallelogram
Theorem (8.1 ): A Diagonal of a Parallelogram Divides it into Two Congruent Triangles. Theorem( 8.2) : In a Parallelogram, Opposite Sides are Equal. Theorem( 8.4) : In a Parallelogram, Opposite Angles are Equal. Theorem( 8.6) : The Diagonals of a Parallelogram Bisect each other. Another Condition for a Quadrilateral to be a Parallelogram
Theorem (8.8) : A Quadrilateral is a Parallelogram if a Pair of Opposite Sides is Equal and Parallel The Mid-point Theorem
Theorem( 8.9) : The Line Segment joining the Mid-points of Two Sides of a Triangle is Parallel to the Third Side. Theorem( 8.10) : The Line drawn through the Mid-point of One Side of a Triangle,Parallel to another Side Bisects the Third Side. Summary
Introduction
Figures on the Same Base and Between the Same Parallels
Parallelograms on the Same Base and Between the same Parallels
Theorem( 9.1) : Parallelograms on the Same Base and between the Same Parallels are Equal in Area. Theorem( 9.2): Two Triangles on the Same Base and between the Same Parallels are Equal in Area. Triangles on the same Base and between the same Parallels
Summary
Introduction
Circles and Its Related Terms: A Review
Angle Subtended by a Chord at a Point
Theorem (10.1) : Equal Chords of a Circle Subtend Equal Angles at the Centre. Theorem (10.2) : If the Angles Subtended by the Chords of a Circle at the Centre are Equal, then the Chords are Equal. Perpendicular from the Centre to a Chord
Theorem( 10.3) : The Perpendicular from the Centre of a Circle to a Chord Bisects the Chord. Circle through Three Points
Theorem( 10.5) : There is One and only One Circle passing through Three given Non-Collinear Points. Equal Chords and Their Distances from the Centre
Theorem (10.6) : Equal Chords of a Circle (or of congruent circles) are Equidistant from the Centre (or centres). Angle Subtended by an Arc of a Circle
Theorem (10.8) : The Angle Subtended by an Arc at the Centre is Double the Angle Aubtended by it at any Point on the Remaining Part of the Circle Theorem (10.9 ) : Angles in the Same Segment of a Circle are Equal. Theorem (10.10 ): If a Line Segment joining Two Points Subtends Equal Angles at Two other Points lying on the Same Side of the Line containing the Line Segment, the Four points lie on a Circle (i.e. t Cyclic Quadrilaterals
Theorem (10.11) : The Sum of Either Pair of Opposite Angles of a Cyclic Quadrilateral is 180?. Theorem (10.12) : If the Sum of a Pair of Opposite Angles of a Quadrilateral is180?, the Quadrilateral is Cyclic. Summary
Introduction
Basic Constructions
Construction( 11.1 )To Construct the Bisector of a Given Angle. Construction (11.2) To Construct the Perpendicular Bisector of a Given Line Segment. Construction (11.3 )To Construct an Angle of 60 ?at the Initial Point of a Given Ray. Some Constructions of Triangles
Construction( 11.4 )To Construct a Triangle, given its Base, a Base Angle and Sum of other Two Sides. Construction (11.5) To Construct a Triangle given its Base, a Base Angle and the Difference of the other two Sides. Construction 11.6 : To construct a triangle, given its perimeter and its two base Angles Summary
Introduction
Area of a Triangle by Herons Formula
Application of Herons Formula in Finding Areas of Quadrilaterals
Summary
Introduction
Surface Area of a Cuboid and a Cube
Surface Area of a Right Circular Cylinder
Surface Area of a Right Circular Cone
Surface Area of a Sphere
Volume of a Cuboid
Volume of a Cylinder
Volume of a Right Circular Cone
Volume of a Sphere
Summary
Introduction
Collection of Data
Presentation of Data
Graphical Representation of Data
Measures of Central Tendency
Summary
Introduction
Probability ? an Experimental Approach
Summary

Science

Air as breath of life

Science

Electrons

Science

Velocity

Topics Covered

Describing Motion
Motion along a straight line Uniform motion and non-uniform motion Measuring the Rate of Motion
Speed with Direction Rate of Change of Velocity
Graphical Representation of Motion
Distance-Time graph Velocity-Time graph Equations of Motion by Graphical method
Equation for Velocity-Time Relation Equation for Position-Time Relation Equation for Position-Velocity Relation Uniform Circular Motion
Balanced and Unbalanced Forces
Newtons First law of Motion
Inertia and Mass
Newtons Second Law of Motion
Mathematical formulation of Second Law of Motion Third Law of Motion
Conservation of Momentum
Gravitation
Universal Law of Gravitation Importance of the Universal Law of Gravitation Free Fall
To calculate the value of g Mass
Weight
Weight of an object on the moon Thrust and Pressure
Pressure in Fluids Buoyancy Why Objects Float or Sink when placed on the Surface of Water? Archimede's Principle
Relative Density
Work
Not much "work" in spite of Working Hard Scientific Conception of Work Work Done by a Constant Force Energy
Forms of Energy Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Potential energy of an object at a Height Are Various Energy Forms Interconvertible? Law of Conservation of Energy Rate of Doing Work?
Commercial Unit of Energy
Production of Sound
Propagation of Sound
Sound needs a Medium to Travel Sound Waves are Longitudinal Waves Characteristics of a Sound Wave Speed of Sound in Different Media Reflection of Sound
Echo Reverberation Uses of Multiple Reflection of Sound Range of Hearing
Applications of Ultrasound
Sonar Structure of Human Ear

Science

Air as breath of life

Science

Electrons

Science

Velocity

Topics Covered

Physical Nature of Matter
Matter is made of Particles and How small are these Particles Characteristics of Particles of Matter
Particles of Matter are Continuously Moving Particles of Matter have Space between them Particles of Matter Attract each other State of Matter
States of matter - Solid, Liquid and Gaseous state Can Matter Change its State?
Effect of Change of Temperature Effect of Change of Pressure Evaporation
Factors Affecting Evaporation and Evaporation causes cooling
What is a Mixture?
Types of Mixture What is a Solution?
Concentration of a Solution What is a Suspension? What is a Colloidal Solution? Separating the Components of a Mixture
How can we Separate Cream from Milk? How can we separate a mixture of two Immiscible Liquids? How can we separate a mixture of Salt and Ammonium Chloride? Is the Dye in Black Ink a Single Colour? How can we separate a mixture of two Miscible Liquids? How can we obtain different Gases from Air? How can we obtain Pure Copper Sulphate from an Impure Sample? Physical and Chemical Changes
What are the types of Pure Substances?
Elements Compounds
Laws of chemical combination
Law of Conservation of Mass Law of Constant Proportion What is an Atom?
Modern day symbols of Atoms of different elements and Atomic mass How do Atoms Exist What is a Molecule?
Molecules of Elements and Compounds What is an Ion Writing Chemical Formulae
Formulae of Simple Compouds Molecular mass and Mole Concept
Molecular Mass Formula Unit Mass Mole Concept
Charged Particles in Matter
The Structure of an Atom
Thomson's Model of an Atom Rutherford's Model of Atom Drawbacks of Rutherfords Model of the Atom Bohr's Model of Atom Neutrons How are Electrons Distributed in Different Orbits (Shells)
Valency
Atomic and Mass Number
Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes

Science

Air as breath of life

Science

Electrons

Science

Velocity

Topics Covered

What are living organisms made up of?
What is a Cell Made Up of ? What is the Structural Organisation of a Cell?
Plasma Membrane or Cell Membrane Cell Wall Nucleus Cytoplasam Cell Organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosome Mitochondria Plastids Vacuoles
Are plants and animals made of same types of tissues?
Plant Tissues
Meristematic Tissue Permenant Tissue-Simple Permanent Tissue and Complex Permanent Tissue Animal Tissues
Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscular Tissue Nervous Tissue
What is the basis of Classification of Organisms
Classification and Evolution
The Hierarchy of Classification-Groups
Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Plantae
Thallophyta Bryophyta Pteridophyta Gymnosperms Angiosperms Animalia
Porifera Coelenterata Platyhelminthes Nematoda Annelida Arthropoda Mollusca Echinodermata Protochordata Vertebrata Pisces Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Nomenclature
Health and its Failure
The Significance of Health Personal and Community Issues both matter for Health Distinction between "Healthy" and "Disease free" Diseases and its Causes
What does Disease look like? Acute and Chronic Diseases Chronic diseases and Poor Health Causes of diseases Infectious and Non Infectious Causes Infectious Diseases
Infectious Agents Means of Spread Organ Specific and TissueSpecific Manifestations Principles of Treatment Principles of Prevention
The Breath of life: Air
The Role of the Atmosphere in Climate Control The Movement of Air : Winds Rain Air Pollution Water: A Wonder Liquid
Water Pollution Mineral Riches in the Soil
Biogeochemical Cycles
The Water-Cycle The Nitrogen- Cycle The Carbon Cycle The Green House Effect The Oxygen Cycle Ozone Layer
Improvement in Crop Yields
Crop Variety Improvement Crop Production Management Nutrient Management Irrigation Cropping Patterns Crop Protection Management Animal Husbandry
Cattle Farming Poultry Farming Fish Production Marine Fisheries Inland Fisheries Bee Keeping

Mathematics

Angle-of-Elevation

Mathematics

Criteria for Simillarity of Triangles

Mathematics

Tangent to a circle

Topics Covered

Introduction
Euclids Division Lemma
Theorem for Euclid’s Division Lemma The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
Revisiting Irrational Numbers
Theorem Related to Revisiting Irrational Numbers Revisiting Rational Numbers and Their Decimal Expansions
Theorem Related to Revisiting Rational Numbers and Their Decimal Expansions Summary
Introduction
Geometrical Meaning of the Zeroes of a Polynomial
Relationship between Zeroes and Coefficients of a Polynomia
Division Algorithm for Polynomials
Summary
Introduction
Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
Graphical Method of Solution of a Pair of Linear Equations
Algebraic Methods of Solving a Pair of Linear Equations
Substitution Method Elimination Method Cross - Multiplication Method Equations Reducible to a Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
Summary
Introduction
Quadratic Equations
Solution of a Quadratic Equation by Factorisation
Solution of a Quadratic Equation by Completing the Square
Nature of Roots
Summary
Introduction
Arithmetic Progressions
nth Term of an AP
Sum of First n Terms of an AP
Summary
Introduction
Similar Figures
Similarity of Triangles
Basic Proportionality Theorem Criteria for Similarity of Triangles
Areas of Similar Triangles
Theorem - The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles Pythagoras Theorem
Pythagoras Theorem Proof for Pythagoras Theorem Converse of Pythagoras Theorem Summary
Introduction
Distance Formula
Section Formula
Area of a Triangle
Summary
Introduction
Trigonometric Ratios
Trigonometric Ratios of Some Specific Angles
Trigonometric Ratios of Complementary Angles
Trigonometric Identities
Summary
Introduction
Heights and Distances
Summary
Introduction
Tangent to a Circle
Number of Tangents from a Point on a Circle
Summary
Introduction
Division of a Line Segment
Construction of Tangents to a Circle
Construction 11.3 To construct the tangents to a circle from a point outside it. Summary
Introduction
Perimeter and Area of a Circle A Review
Areas of Sector and Segment of a Circle
Areas of Combinations of Plane Figures
Summary
Introduction
Surface Area of a Combination of Solids
Volume of a Combination of Solids
Conversion of Solid from One Shape to Another
Frustum of a Cone
Summary
Introduction
Mean of Grouped Data
Mode of Grouped Data
Median of Grouped Data
Graphical Representation of Cumulative Frequency Distribution
Summary
Introduction
Probability A Theoretical Approach
Summary

Science

Electric generators and Dynamo

Science

Metallurgy

Science

Photosynthetic organ

Topics Covered

Reflection of Light
Spherical Mirrors
Image Formation by Spherical Mirrors Representation of Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors Using Ray Diagrams Sign Convention for Reflection by Spherical Mirrors Mirror Formula and Magnification Refraction of Light
Refraction through a Rectangular Glass Slab The Refractive Index Refraction by Spherical Lenses Image Formation by Lenses Image Formation in Lenses Using Ray Diagrams Sign Convention for Spherical Lenses Lens Formula and Magnification Power of a Lens
The Human eye
Power of Accommodation Defects of Vision and their Correction
Refraction of Light through a Prism
Dispersion of White Light by a Glass Prism
Atmospheric Refraction
Scattering of Light
Tyndall Effect Scattering of light,blue colour of the sky and Colour of the Sun at Sunrise and Sunset
Electric Current and Circuit
Electric Potential and Potential difference
Circuit diagram
OHMS Law
Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends
Resistance of a system of Resistors
Resistors in Series or Parellel Heating effect of Electric Current
Practical applications of Heating Efect of Electric Current Electric power
Magnetic Feld and Field Lines
Magnetic Field due to a Current Carrying conductor
Magnetic Field due to a Current through a Straight Conductor Right-Hand Thumb Rule Magnetic Field due to a Current through a Circular Loop Magnetic Field due to a Current in a Solenoid Force on a Current Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field
Electric Motor
Electro Magnetic Induction
Electric Generator
Domestic Electric Circuits
What is a Good Source of Energy
Conventional Sources of Energy
Fossil Fuels Thermal Power Plant Hydro Power Plants Improvements in the Technology for using Conventional Sources of Energy Alternative or Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
Solar Energy Energy from the Sea Geothermal Energy Nuclear Energy Environmental Consequences
How long will an Energy Source Last Us?

Science

Electric generators and Dynamo

Science

Metallurgy

Science

Photosynthetic organ

Topics Covered

Chemical Equations
Writing a Chemical Equation Balanced Chemical Equations Types of Chemical Reactions
Combination Reaction Decomposition Reactions Displacement Reactions Double Displacement Reactions Oxidation and Reduction Effects of Oxidation Reaction in Everyday Life
Corrosion Rancidity
Under Standing the Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases in the Laboratory Reaction of acids and bases with Metals Reaction of Metal Carbonates and Metal Hydrogen Carbonates with acids How do Acids and Bases React with each other? Reaction of Metallic Oxides with Acids and Non-metallic Oxide with Base What do all Acids and all Bases have in Common?
What Happens to an Acid or a Base in a Water Solution? How Strong are Acid or Base Solutions?
Importance of pH in Everyday Life More About Salts
Family of Salts pH of Salts Chemicals from Common Salt Are the Crystals of salts really dry
Physical Properties
Metals Non-metals Chemical Properties of Metals
Reaction Metals with Air, Water, Acids and with Solutions of other Metal Salts The Reactivity Series How do Metals and Non-Metals React?
Properties of Ionic Compounds Occurence of Metals
Extraction of metals low in reactivity series,Middle of the reactivity series and Enrichment of Ores Corrosion
Prevention of Corrosion
Bonding in Carbon- The Covalent bond
Versatile Nature of Carbon
Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds Chains, Branches and Rings Will you be my Friend? Homologous Series Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds
Combustion Oxidation Addition Reaction Substitution Reaction Some Important Carbon Compounds Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid
Properties of Ethanol and Ethanoic acid Soaps and Detergents
Making Order out of Chaos Early Attempts at the Classification of Elements
Dobereiner's Triads Newlands' Law of Octaves Making Order out of Chaos Mendeleevs Periodic Table
Achievements and Limitations of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table Making Order out of Chaos – The Modern Periodic Table
Position of Elements in the Modern Periodic Table Trends in the Modern Periodic Table

Science

Electric generators and Dynamo

Science

Metallurgy

Science

Photosynthetic organ

Topics Covered

What are Life Processes?
Nutrition
Autotrophic Nutrition Heterotrophic Nutrition How do Organisms obtain their Nutrition Nutrition in Human Beings Respiration
Respiration in Human beings Human Respiratory System Respiration in Plants Transportation
Transportation in Human beings Our Pump - the Heart Oxygen enters the Blood in the Lungs The Tubes - Blood Vessels Maintenance by Platelets Lymph Transportation in Plants Transport of Water Transport of Food and other Substances Excretion
Excretion in Human beings Excretion in Plants
Animals- Nervous System
What Happens in Reflex Actions Human Brain How are these Tissues Protected? How does the Nervous Tissue cause Action? Coordination in Plants
Immediate Response to Stimulus Movement Due to Growth Hormones in Animals
Reproduction
The Importance of Variation Modes of Reproduction used by Single Organisms
Fission Fragmentation Regeneration Budding Vegetative Propagation Spore Formation Sexual Reproduction
Why the Sexual Mode of Reproduction? Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Reproduction in Human Beings Male Reproductive System Female Reproductive System What happens when the Egg is not Fertilised Reproductive Health
Accumulation of Variation during Reproduction
Heredity
Inherited traits Rules for the inheritance of Traits ? Mendels contribut How do these Traits get Expressed? Sex Determination Evolution
Acquired and Inherited Traits Speciation
Evolution and Classification
Tracing Evolutionary Relationships Fossils Evolution by Stages Evolution should not be Equated with PROGRESS
Human Evolution
What Happens when We add Our Waste to the Environment?
Eco System and its Components
Food Chains and Webs How do Our Activities Affect the Environment?
Ozone Layer and how it is getting Depleted Managing the Garbage we Produce
Why do We need to Manage Our Resources?
Forests and Wild Life
Stakeholders Sustainable Management Water for All
Dams Water Harvesting Coal and Petroleum
An Overview of Natural Resource Management

Physics

Doppler's Effect

Physics

Equilibrium of a Particle

Physics

Thermodynamic process

Topics Covered

What is Physics?
Scope and Excitement in Physics
Physics Technology and Society
Fundanmental Forces in Nature
Nature of physical Laws
Summary
Introduction
The International System of Units
Measurement of Length
Measurement of Mass
Measurement of Time
Accuracy, Precision of Instruments and Errors in measurement
Significant Figures
Dimensions of Physical Quantities
Dimensional Formulae and Dimensional Equations
Dimensional Analysis and its Applications
Summary
Introduction
Positon, Path Length and Displacement
Average Speed and Instantaneous Speed
Velocity and its Types
Acceleration
Kinematic Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion
Relative Velocity
Summary
Introduction
Scalars and Vectors
Multiplication of Vectors by Real Numbers
Addition and Subtraction of Vectors- Graphical Method
Resolution of Vectors
Motion In a Plane- Position Vector and Displacement
Motion in a Plane with Constant Acceleration
Relative Velocity in Two Dimensions
Projectile Motion
Uniform Circular Motion
Summary
Introduction
Aristotles Fallacy
The Law of Inertia
Newtons First Law of Motion
Newtons Second Law of Motion
Newtons Third Law of Motion
Conservation of Momentum
Equilibrium of a Particle
Friction
Circular Motion
Solving Problems in Mechanics
Summary
Introduction
Notions of Work and Kinetic Energy: The Work- Energy Theorem
Work
Kinetic Energy
Work Done by a Variable Force
The Work Energy Theorem for a Variable Force
The Concept of Potential Energy
The Conservation of Mechanical Energy
The potential Energy of a Spring
Various Forms of Energy: The Law of Conservation of Energy
Heat Chemical Energy Electrical Energy Nuclear Energy The Principle of Conservation of Energy Power
Collisions
Summary
Introduction
Centre of Mass
Motion of Centre of Mass
Linear Mometum of a System of Particles
Vector Product of Two Vectors
Angular Velocity and its Relation with Linear Velocity
Angular acceleration Torque and Angular Momentum
Equilibrium of a Rigid Body
Centre of gravity Moment of Inertia
Theorems of perpendicular and Parallel Axes
Dynamics of Rotaional motion About a Fixed Axis
Angular Momentum in Case of a Rotation About a Fixed Axis
Rolling Motion
Summary
Introduction
Keplers Laws
Universal Law of Gravitation
The Gravitational Constant
Acceleration Due to Gravity Of Earth
Acceleration Due to Gravity Below and Above the Surface of Earth
Gravitational Potential Energy
Escape Speed
Earth satellites
Energy of an Orbiting Satellite
Geostationary and Polar Satellites
Weightlessness
Summary
Introduction
Elastic behaviour of Solids
Stress and Strain
Hooke's Law
Stress -Strain Curve
Elastic Moduli
Applications of Elastic Behaviour of Materials
Summary
Introduction
Pressure
Streamline Flow
Bernoullis Principle
Speed of Efflux: Torricelli?s Law Venturi-meter / Sprayer Dynamic Lift Viscosity
Stoke's Law Reynolds Number
Surface Tension
Drops and Bubbles Capillary Rise Detergents Summary
Introduction
Temperature and Heat
Measurement of Temperature
Ideal - Gas Equation and Absolute Temperature
Thermal Expansion
Specific Heat Capacity
Calorimetry
Change of State
Heat Transfer
Newtons Law of Cooling
Summary
Introduction
Thermal Equilibrium
First law of Thermodynamics
Specific Heat Capacity
Thermodynamic State Variables and Equation of State
Thermodynamic processes
Heat Engines
Refigerators and Heat Pumps
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Reversible and Irreversible Processes
Carnot Engine
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Heat, Internal energy and Work
Summary
Introduction
Molecular Nature of Matter
Behaviour of Gases
Kinetic Theory of an ideal Gas
Pressure of an Ideal Gas Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature Law of Equipartition of Energy
Specific Heat Capacity of gases, solids and water
Mean free Path
Summary
Periodic and Oscillatory Motions
Introduction
Simple Harmonic Motion
Simple Harmonic Motion and uniform Circular Motion
Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion
Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion
Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
Some Systems Executing Simple Harmonic Motion
Oscillations due to a Spring The Simple Pendulum Damped Simple Harmonic motion
Forced Oscillations and Resonance
Summary
Introduction
Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
Displacement Relation In a Progressive Wave
The Speed of a Travelling Wave
The Principle of Superposition of Waves
Reflection of Waves
Standing Waves and Normal Modes Beats
Doppler Effect
Summary

Chemistry

Acids,bases and salts

Chemistry

Daltons law of partial pressure

Chemistry

Electro chemical cell

Topics Covered

Introduction
Nature of Matter
Uncertainty in Measurement
Significant Figures Dimensional Analysis Daltons Atomic Theory
Atomic Mass and Molecular Mass
Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric Calculations
Reactions in Solutions Summary
Introduction
Charge to Mass Ratio of Electron Charge on the Electron Discovery of Protons and Neutrons Atomic Models
Thomson Model of Atom Rutherford?s Nuclear Model of Atom Atomic Number and Mass Number Isobars and Isotopes Drawbacks of Rutherford Model Towards Quantum mechanical Model of the Atom
Dual Behaviour of Matter Heisenberg?s Uncertainty Principle Summary
Why do We need to Classify Elements
Genesis of Periodic Classification
Modern periodic Law and the Present Form of the Periodic Table
Nomen Clature of Elements with Atomic Numbers>100
Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table
Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-.p-,d-,f- Blocks
Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Summary
Kossel Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding
Covalent Bond Lewis Representation of Simple Molecules(The Lewis Structures) Limitations of the Octet Rule Ionic or Electrovalent Bond
Bond Parameters
Bond Length and Bond Angle Bond Enthalpy and Bond Order Resonance Structures Polarity of Bonds The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion(VSEPR) Theory
Valence Bond Theory
Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bonds Hybridisation Types of Hybridisation Molecular Orbital Theory
Formation of Molecular Orbitals Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals(LCAO) Types of Molecular Orbitals Electronic Configuration and Molecular Behaviour Bonding in Some Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
Hydrogen Bonding
.1 Cause of Formation of Hydrogen Bond
Summary
Intermolecular Forces
Thermal Energy
Intermolecular Forces vs Thermal Interactions
The Gaseous State
The Gas Laws
Charles Law (Temperature - Volume Relationship) Gay Lussacs Law (Pressure- Temperature Relationship) Avagadro Law (Volume -Amount Realtionship) Ideal - Gas Equation
Density and Molar Mass of a Gaseous Substance
Daltons Law of Partial Pressure
Kinetic molecular Theory of Gases
Behaviour of Real Gases: Deviation form Ideal Gas Behaviour
Liquifaction of Gases
Liquid State
Surface Tension Viscocity Summary
Thermodynamic State
The Internal Energy as a State Function Applications
Work Enthalpy Measurement of Delta U and Delta H: Calorimetry
Enthalpy Change, Delta rH of a Reaction - Reaction Enthalpy
Enthalpies for Different types of Reactions
Spontaneity
Gibbs Energy Change Equilibrium
Summary
Equilibrium in Physical Processes
Liquid Vapour Equilibrium Solid Vapour Equilibrium Equilibrium Involving Dissolution of Solid or Gases in Liquids General Characteristics of Equlibria Involving Physical Processes Equilibrium in Chemical Processes - Dynamic Equilibrium
Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant
Homogenous Equilibria
Heterogeneous Equilibria
Applications of Equilibrium Constants
Predicting the Direction of a Reaction Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations Relationship between Equilibrium constant K,Reaction Quotient Q, Gibbs Energy G
Factors Affecting Equilibria
Effect of Temperature Change Effect of a Catalyst Ionic Equilibrium in Solution
Acids, Bases and Salts
. The Bronsted Lowry Acids and Bases Lewis Acids and Bases Ionisation of Acids and Bases
The PH scale Ionisation Constants of Weak Acids Ionisation of Weak Bases Realtion Between Ka and Kb Di- and polybasic Acids and Di - Polyacidic Bases Factors Affecting Acid Strength Common Ion Effect in the Ionization of Acids and Bases Hydrolysis of Salts and the PH of their Solutions Buffer Solutions
Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Common Ion Effect On Solubility of Ionic Salts Summary
Classical Idea of Redox Reactions- Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
Redox Reactions in Terms of Electron Transfer Reactions
Oxidation Number
Types of Redox Reactions Balancing of Redox Reactions Redox Reactions as the Basis for Titrations Redox Reactions and Electrode Processes
Summary
Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table
Dihydrogen, H2
Isotopes of Hydrogen Preparation of Dihydrogen, H2
Commercial Production of Dihydrogen Properties of Dihydrogen
Physical Properties Chemical Properties Uses of Dihydrogen Hydrides
Covalent or Molecular Hydride Metallic or Non-stoichiometric (or Interstitial ) Hydrides Water
Physical Properties of Water Structure of Water Structure of Ice Chemical Properties of Water Hard and Soft Water Temporary Hardness Permanent Hardness Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)
Physical Properties Structure Storage Uses Heavy Water, D2O
Dihydrogen As a Fuel
Summary
Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals
Chemical Properties Uses General Characteristics Of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals
Anomalous Properties of Lithium
Points of Similarities between Lithium and Magnesium Some Important Compounds of Sodium
Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium
Group 2 Elements: Alkaline Earth Metals
Chemical Properties Uses General characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals
Anomalous Behaviour of Berryllium
Diagonal Relationship between Beryllium and Aluminium Some Important Compounds of Calcium
Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Summary
Group 13 Elements: the Boron Family
Physical Properties Chemical Properties Important Trends and Anomalous Properties of Boron
Some Important Compounds of Boron
Diborane, B2H6 Uses of Boron and Aluminium and their Compounds
Group 14 Elements: The Carbon Family
Physical Properties Chemical Properties Important Trends and Anomalous Behaviour of Carbon
Allotropes of Carbon
Some Important Compounds of Carbon and Silicon
Summary
General Introduction
Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds
Some Characteristic Features of Pi Bonds Structural Representations of Organic Compounds
Three-Dimensional Representation of Organic Molecules Classification of Organic Compounds
Nomenclature of Organic Compounds
The IUPAC System of Nomenclature IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkanes Nomenclature of Organic Compounds having Functional Group Nomenclature of Substituted Benzene Compounds Isomerism
Structural Isomerism Stereoisomerism Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism
Fission of a Covalent Bond Nucleophiles and Electrophlies Electron Movement in Organic Reactions Electron Displacement Effects in Covalent Bonds Inductive Effect Resonance Structure Resonance Effect Electromeric Effect (E effect) Hyperconjugation Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds
Crystallisation Distillation Differential Extraction Chromatography Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds
Detection of Other Elements Quantitative Analysis
Nitrogen Halogens Sulphur Phosphorus Oxygen Summary
Classification
Alkanes
Nomenclature and Isomerism Preparation Properties Chemical properties Conformations Structure of Double Bond Alkenes
Isomerism Preparation Properties Alkynes
Nomenclature and Isomerism Preparation Properties Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Structure of Benzene Aromaticity Preparation of Benzene Properties Directive influence of a functional group in monosubstituted benzene Carcinogenicity and Toxicity
Summary
Environmental Pollution
Atmospheric Pollution
Tropospheric Pollution Gaseous air pollutants Particulate Pollutants Water Pollution
Causes of Water Pollution Soil Pollution
Industrial Waste
Strategies to Control Environmental Pollution
Green Chemistry
Summary

Biology

Digestion of food

Biology

Generation and conduction of nerval impulse

Biology

Role of macro and micronutrients

Topics Covered

What is Living?
Diversity in the living World
Taxonomic Categories
Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Taxonomical Aids
Herbarium Botanical Gardens Museum Zoological Parks Key Summary
Kingdom Monera
Archaebacteria Eubacteria Kingdom Protista
Chrysophytes Dianoflagellates Euglenoids Slime Moulds Protozoans Kingdom Fungi
Phycomycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes Deuteromycetes Kingdom plantae
Kingdom Animalia
Viruses, Viroids and Lichens
Summary
Algae
Chlorophyceae Phaeophyceae Rhodophyceae Bryophytes
Liverworts Mosses Pteridophytes
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms
Plant life Cycle and Alternation of Generations
Summary
Basis of Classification
Levels of Organisation Symmetry Diploblastic and Triploblastic Organisation Coelom Segmentation Notochord Classification of Animals
Phylum ? Porifera Phylum ? Coelenterata (Cnidaria Phylum ? Ctenophora Phylum ? Platyhelminthes Phylum ? Aschelminthes Phylum ? Annelida Phylum ? Arthropoda Phylum ? Mollusca Phylum ? Echinodermata Phylum ? Hemichordata Phylum ? Chordata Class ? Cyclostomata Class ? Chondrichthyes Class ? Osteichthyes Class ? Amphibia Class ? Reptilia Class ? Aves Class ? Mammalia Summary
The Root
Regions of the Root Modifications of Root The Stem
Modifications of Stem The Leaf
Venation Types of Leaves Phyllotaxy Modifications of Leaves The Inflorescence
The Flower
Parts of a Flower Calyx Corolla Androecium Gynoecium The Fruit
The Seed
Structure of a Dicotyledonous Seed Structure of Monocotyledonous Seed Description of Some Important Families
Fabaceae Solanaceae Lilaceae Summary
The Tissues
The Tissue System
Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants
Secondary Growth
Summary
Animal Tissues
Organ and Organ System
Earthworm
Cockroach
Frogs
Summary
What is a Cell?
Cell Theory
An Overview of Cell
Prokaryotic Cells
Cell Envelope and its Modifications Eukaryotic Cells
Cell Membrane Cell Wall Endomembrane System The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Plastids Ribosomes Cytoskeleton Cilia and Flagella Centrosome and Centrioles Nucleus Microbodies Summary
How to Analyse Chemical Composition?
Primary and Secondary Metabolites
Biomacromolecules
Proteins
Polysaccharides
Nucleic Acids
Structure of Proteins
Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer
Dynamic State of Body Constituents- Concept of Metabolism
Metabolic Basis for Living
The Living State
Enzymes
Chemical Reactions How do Enzymes bring about such High Rates of Chemical Conversions? Nature of Enzyme Action Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes Co-factors Summary
Cell Cycle
Phases of Cell Cycle M Phase
Significance of Mitosis
Meiosis
Significance of Meiosis
Summary
Means of Transport
Comparison of Different Transport Processes Plant-Water Relations
Water Potential Osmosis Plasmolysis Imbibition Long Distance Transport of Water
Transpiration
Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients
Uptake of Mineral Ions Translocation of Mineral Ions PhloemTransport: Flow From Source to Sink
The Pressure Flow or Mass Flow Hypothesis Summary
Methods to Study the Mineral Requirements
Essential Mineral Elements
Criteria for Essentiality Role of Macro- and Micro-nutrients Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Elements Toxicity of Micronutrients Mechanism of Absorption of Elements
Translocation of Solutes
Soil as Reservoir of Essential Elements
Metabolism of Nitrogen
Nitrogen Cycle Biological Nitrogen Fixation Summary
What do we Know?
Early Experiments
Where Does Photosynthesis Take Place?
How Many Pigments Are Involved in Photosynthesis
What is Light Reaction?
The Electron Transport
Splitting of Water Cyclic and Non-cyclic Photo-phosphorylation Chemiosmotic Hypothesis Where Are The ATP AND NADPH Used?
The Primary Acceptor of CO2 The Calvin Cycle The C4 Pathway
Photorespiration
Factors Affecting Phototsynthesis
Carbon dioxide Concentration Temperature Water Summary
Do Plants Breathe
Glycolysis
Fermentation
Aerobic Respiration
The Respiratory Balance Sheet
Amphibolic Pathway
Respiratory Quotient
Summary
Growth
Growth is Measurable Phases of Growth Growth Rates Conditions for Growth Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Rediffetentiation
Development
Plant Growth Regulators
The Discovery of Plant Growth Regulators Physiological Effects of Plant Growth Regulators Gibberellins Cytokinins Ethylen Abscisic acid Photoperiodism
Vernalisation
Summary
Digestive System
Alimentary Canal Digestive Glands Digestion of Food
Absorption of Digested Food Products
Disorders of Digestive System
Summary
Respiratory Organs
Human Respiratory System Mechanism of Breathing
Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Exchange of Gases
Transport of Gases
Transport of Carbon dioxide Regulation of Respiration
Disorders of Respiratory System
Summary
Blood
Formed Elements Blood Groups Rh grouping Coagulation of Blood Lymph (Tissue Fluid)
Circulatory Pathways
Human Circulatory System Cardiac Cycle Electrocardiograph (ECG) Double Circulation
Regulation of Cardiac Activity
Disorders of Circulatory System
Summary
Human Excretory System
Urine Formation
Function of the Tubules
Mechanism of Concentration of the Filtrate
Regulation of Kidney Function
Micturition
Role of Other Organs in Excretion
Disorders of the Excretory System
Summary
Types of Movement
Muscle
Structure of Contractile Proteins Mechanism of Muscle Contraction Skeletal System
Joints
Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System
Summary
Neural System
Human Neural System
Central Neural system
Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Reflex Action and Reflex Arc
Sensory Reception and Processing
Eye The Ear Mechanism of Hearing Summary
Neuron as structural and functional unit of neural system
Generation and Conduction of Nerve Impulse Transmission of impulses
Endocrine Glands and Hormones
Human Endocrine System
The Pituitary Gland The Pineal Gland Thyroid Gland Parathyroid Gland Thymus Adrenal Gland Pancreas Testis Ovary Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract
Mechanism of Hormone Action
Summary

Mathematics

Collinearity of Three Points

Mathematics

Domain and range of trigonometric functions

Mathematics

Section Formula

Topics Covered

Introduction
Sets and their Representations
The Empty Set
Finite and Infinite Sets
Equal Sets
Subsets
Intervals as subsets of R Power Set
Universal Set
Venn Diagrams
Operations on Sets
Union of sets Intersection of sets Difference of sets Complement of a Set
Practical Problems on Union and Intersection of Two Sets
Summary
Introduction
Cartesian Products of Sets
Relations
Functions
Some functions and their graphs Algebra of Real Functions Summary
Introduction
Angles
Degree Measure Radian measure Relation between Radian and Real numbers Relation between Degree and Radian Trigonometric Functions
Sign of Trigonometric Functions Domain and Range of Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Functions of Sum and Difference of Two Angles
Trigonometric Equations
Summary
Introduction
Motivation
The Principle of Mathematical Induction
Summary
Introduction
Complex Numbers
Algebra of Complex Numbers
Addition of two complex numbers Difference of two complex numbers Multiplication of two complex numbers Division of two complex numbers The square roots of a negative real number Power of i Identities The Modulus and the Conjugate of a Complex Number
Argand Plane and Polar Representation
Polar representation of a complex number Quadratic Equations
Summary
Introduction
Inequalities
Algebraic Solutions of Linear Inequalities in One Variable and their Graphical Representation
Graphical Solution of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
Solution of System of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
Summary
Introduction
Fundamental Principle of Counting
Permutations
Permutations when all the objects are distinct Factorial notation Derivation of the formula for nPr Permutations when all the objects are not distinct objects Combinations
Summary
Introduction
Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices
Binomial theorem for any positive integer n, Some special cases In the expansion of (a + b)n, General and Middle Terms
Summary
Introduction
Sequences
Series
Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)
Arithmetic mean Geometric Progression (G . P.)
General term of a G .P. Sum to n terms of a G .P. Geometric Mean (G .M.) Relationship Between A.M. and G.M.
Sum to n Terms of Special Series
Summary
Introduction
Slope of a Line
Slope of a line when coordinates of any two points on the line are given Conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity of lines in terms of their slopes Angle between two lines A Collinearity of three points Various Forms of the Equation of a Line
Horizontal and vertical lines Point-slope form Two-point form Slope-intercept form Intercept - form Normal form General Equation of a Line
Different forms of Ax + By + C = 0 Distance of a Point From a Line
Distance between two parallel lines Summary
Introduction
Circle
Parabola
Standard equations of parabola Latus rectum Ellipse
Special cases of an ellipse Eccentricity Standard equations of an ellipse Latus rectum Relationship between semi major, semi minor axis and the distance of the focus from the centre Hyperbola
Eccentricity Standard equation of Hyperbola Latus Rectum Summary
Sections of a Cone
Introduction
Coordinate Axes and Coordinate Planes in Three Dimensional Space
Coordinates of a Point in Space
Distance between Two Points
Section Formula
Summary
Introduction
Intuitive Idea of Derivatives
Limits
Limits of Trigonometric Functions
Derivatives
Algebra of derivative of functions Derivative of polynomials and Trigonometric Functions Summary
Introduction
Statements
New Statements from Old
Negation of a statement Compound statements Special Words/Phrases
The word And The word Or Quantifiers rd ?And rd ?Or fiers Implications
Contrapositive and converse Validating Statement By Contradiction
Summary
Introduction
Measures of Dispersion
Range
Mean Deviation
Mean deviation for ungrouped data Mean deviation for grouped data Limitations of Mean Deviation Variance and Standard Deviation
Analysis of Frequency Distributions
Summary
Introduction
Random Experiments
Event
Axiomatic Approach to Probability
Summary

Physics

Bar Magnet as an Equivalent Solenoid

Physics

Defects of Eye

Physics

Displacement Current

Topics Covered

Introduction
Electric Charge
Conductors and Insulators
Charging by Induction
Basic Properties of Electric Charge
Coulombs Law
Forces between Multiple Charges
Electric Field
Electric Field Lines
Electric Flux
Electric Dipole
Dipole in a Uniform External Field
Continuous Charge Distribution
Gauss's Law
Applications of Gauss's Law
Summary
Introduction
Electrostatic Potential
Potential Due to a Point Charge
Potential Due to an Electric Dipole
Potential Due to a System of Charges
Equipotential Surfaces
Potential Energy of a System of Charges
Potential Energy in an External Field
Electrostatics of Conductors
Dielectrics and Polarisation
Capacitors and Capacitance
The Parallel Plate Capacitor
Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance
Combination of Capacitors
Capacitors in series Capacitors in parallel Energy Stored in a Capacitor
Van De Graaff Generator
Summary
Introduction
Electric Current
Electric Currents in Conductors
Ohm s Law
Drift of Electrons and the origin of Resistivity
Limitations of Ohm s Law
Resistivity of Various Materials
Temperature Dependence of Resistivity
Electrical Energy, Power
Combination of Resistors- Series and Parallel
Cells, EMF, Internal Resistance
Cells in Series and in Parallel
Kirchhoff s Law
Wheatstone Bridge
Meter Bridge
Potentiometer
Summary
Introduction
MagneticForce
Magnetic Field, Lorentz Force Magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor Motion in a Magnetic Field
Motion in combined electric and magnetic field-Velocity selector
Magnetic Field due to a Current Element Biot-Savart Law
Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop
Ampere s Circuital Law
The Solenoid and The Toroid
The solenoid The toroid Force between two parallel currents, the Ampere
Torque on Current Loop, Magnetic Dipole
Torque on a rectangular current loop in a uniform magnetic field Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron The Moving Coil Galvanometer
Summary
Introduction
The Bar Magnet
The magnetic field lines Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid The dipole in a uniform magnetic field Magnetism and Guass s Law
The Earth s Magnetism
Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity
Magnetic Properties of Materials
Permanent magnets and Electromagnets
Summary
Introduction
The experiments of Faraday and Henry
Magnetic Flux
Faraday s Law of Induction
Lenz s Law and Conservation of Energy
Motional Electromotive Force
Energy Consideration: A Quantitative Study
Eddy Currents
Inductance
Mutual Inductance Self Inductance AC Generator
Summary
Introduction
AC Voltage applied to a Resistor
Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors- Phasors
AC Voltage applied to an Inductor
AC Voltage applied to a Capacitor
AC Voltage applied to a Series LCR Circuit
Phasor-diagram solution Resonance Power in AC Circuit: The Power Factor
LC Oscillations
Transformers
Summary
Introduction
Displacement Current
Electromagnetic Waves
Sources of Electromagnetic Waves Nature of Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Spectrum
Radio waves Microwaves Infrared waves Visible rays Ultraviolet rays X-rays Gamma rays Summary
Introduction
Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors
Sign convention Focal length of spherical mirrors The Mirror Equation Refraction
Total Internal Reflection
Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses
Refraction by a lens Power of a lens Combination of thin lenses in contact Refraction through a Prism
Dispersion by a Prism
Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight
The Rainbow Scattering of light Optical Instruments
The Eye The Microscope Telescope Summary
Introduction
Huygens Principle
Refraction and Reflection of Plane Waves using Huygens Principle
Reflection of a Plane Wave by a Plane Surface The Doppler Effect Coherent and incoherent Addition of Waves
Interference of Light Waves and Young s Experiment
Diffraction
The single slit Resolving Power of Pptical Instruments Summary
Polarisation
Polarisation by Scattering
Polarisation by Reflection
Introduction
Electron Emission
Phototelectric Effect
Hallwachs' and Lenard's observations Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect
Effect of potential on photoelectric current Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light
Einstein's Photoelctric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation
Particle Nature of Light: The photon
Wave Nature of Matter
Davisson and Germer Experiment
Summary
Introduction
Alpha-Particle Scattering and Rutherford s Nuclear Model of Atom
Alpha-particle trajectory Electron orbits Atomic Spectra
Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom
Energy levels The Line Spectra of Hydrogen Atom
De Broglie s Explanation of Bohr s Second Postulate of Quantisation
Summary
Introduction
Atomic Massesand Composition of Nucleus
Size of the Nucleus
Mass - Energy Nuclear Binding Energy Nuclear Force
Radioactivity
Alpha decay Beta decay Gamma decay Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Reactor Nuclear fusion Energy Generation in Stars Summary
Introduction
Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors
Intrinsic Semiconductor
Extrinsic Semiconductor
p-n Junction
Semiconductor Diode
p-n junction diode under forward bias p-n junction diode under reverse bias Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier
Special Purpose of p-n Junction Diodes
Zener diode Optoelectronic junction devices Junction Transistor
Basic transistor circuit configurations and transistor characteristics Transistor as an Amplifier (CE-Configuration) Feedback amplifier and transistor oscillator Digital Electronics and Logic Gates
Integrated Circuits
Summary
Introduction
Elements of a Communication System
Basic Terminology used in Electronic Communication Systems
Bandwidth of Signals
Bandwidth of Transmission Medium
Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
Modulation and its Necessity
Amplitude Modulation
Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave
Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave
Summary

Chemistry

Electrophilic Substitution Reactions

Chemistry

Faraday's Law of Electrolysis

Chemistry

Refining

Topics Covered

Introduction
Amorphous and Crystalline Solids
Classification of Crystalline Solids
Molecular Solids Ionic Solids Covalent or Network Solids Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
Primitive and centered Unit cell Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell
Body- Centred Cubic Unit Cell Face-Centred Cubic Unit Cell Close Packed Structures
Formula of a Compound and Number of Voids Packing Efficiency
Packing Efficiency in hcp and ccp Structures Efficiency of Packing in Body-Centred Cubic Structures Packing Efficiency in Simple Cubic Lattice Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions
Imperfections in Solids
Types of Point Defects Electrical Properties
Conduction of Electricity in Metals and in Semiconductors Magnetic Properties
Summary
Types of Solutions
Expressing Concentration of Solutions
Solubility
Solubility of a Solid in a Liquid Solubility of a Gas in a Liquid Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions
Vapour pressure of Liquid Solutions Raoult s Law as a special case of Henry s Law Vapour Pressure of solutions of Solids in liquids Ideal and Non ideal Solutions
Ideal Solutions Non- Ideal Solutions Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass
Relative Lowering of Vapour Pressure Elevation of Boiling point Depression of Feezing Point Osmosis and Osmotic pressure Reverse Osmosis and Water Purification Abnormal Molar Masses
Summary
Electrochemical Cells
Galvanic Cells
Nernst Equation
Equilibrium Constant from Nernst Equation Electrochemical Cell and Gibbs Energy of the Reaction Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions
Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis
Batteries
Fuel Cells
Corrosion
Summary
Rate of a Chemical Reaction
Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction
Dependence of Rate on Concentration Rate Expression and Rate Constant Order of a Reaction Molecularity of a Reaction Integrated Rate Equations
Zero Order Reactions First Order Reactions Half-Life of a Reaction Pseudo First Order Reaction
Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction
Effect of Catalyst Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions
Summary
Adsorption
Distinction between Adsorption and Absorption Mechanism of Adsorption Types of Adsorption Adsorption Isotherms Applications of Adsorption Catalysis
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis Adsorption Theory of Heterogeneous Catalysis Shape Selective Catalysis by Zeolites Enzyme Catalysis Catalysts in Industry Colloids
Classification of Colloids
Classification based on Physical State of Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium Classification based on Nature of Interaction between Dispersed Phase and Dispersion medium Classification based on Type of Particles of the Dispersed Phase, Multimolecular, Macromolecular and Associated Colloids Preparation of Colloids Purification of Colloidal Solutions Properties of Colloidal Solutions Emulsions
Colloids Around Us
Summary
Occurrence of Metals
Concentration of Ores
Magnetic Seperation Froth Floatation Method Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore
Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy
Applications Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy
Oxidation Reduction
Refining
Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron
Summary
Group 15 Elements
Physical Properties Chemical Properties Dinitrogen
Ammonia
Oxides of Nitrogen
Nitric Acid
Phosphorus - Allotropic Forms
Phosphine
Phosphorus Halides
Phosphorus Pentachloride Oxoacids of Phosphorus
Group 16 Elements
Physical Properties Chemical Properties Dioxygen
Simple Oxides
Ozone
Sulphur - Allotropic Forms
Sulphur Dioxide
Oxoacids of Sulphur
Sulphuric Acid
Group 17 Elements
Physical Properties Chemical Properties Chlorine
Hydrogen Chloride
Oxoacids of Halogens
Interhalogen Compounds
Group 18 Elements
Summary
Introduction
Electronic Configuration of the d-Block Elements
General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)
Oxidation States Magnetic Properties Formation of Coloured Ions Formation of Complex Compounds Catalytic Properties Formation of Interstitial Compounds Alloy Formation Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements
The Inner Transition Elements ( f-BLOCK)
The Lanthanoids The Actinoids
Ionic Sizes Oxidation States General Characteristics and Comparison with Lanthanoids Summary
Werner's Theory of Coordination Compounds
Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds
Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds
Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
Bonding in Coordination Compounds
Valence Bond Theory Limitations of Valence Bond Theory Crystal Field Theory Colour in Coordination Compound Stability of Coordination Compounds
Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds
Summary
Classification
Nomenclature
Nature of C-X Bond
Methods of Preparation
From Hydrocarbons Halogen Exchange Physical Properties
Chemical Reactions
Polyhalogen Compounds
Summary
Classification
Nomenclature
Structures of Functional Groups
Alcohols and Phenols , Preparation of Alcohols
Preparation of Alcohols Preparation of Phenols Physical Properties Chemical Reactions Some Commercially Important Alcohols
Ethers
Summary
Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group
Structure of the Carbonyl Group Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
Physical Properties
Chemical Reactions
Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones
Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group
Structure of Carboxyl Group Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
Physical properties
Uses of Carboxylic Acids
Summary
Chemical Reactions of Carboxylic Acids
Reactions Involving Cleavage of O?H Bond Reactions Involving Cleavage of C?OH Bond Reactions Involving ?COOH Group
Structure of Amines
Classification
Nomenclature
Preparation of Amines
Physical Properties
Chemical Reactions
Method of Preparation of Diazoniun Salts
Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds
Summary
Carbohydrates
Classification of carbohydrates Monosaccharides Preparation of Glucose Cyclic Structure of Glucose Structure of Fructose Disaccharides Sucrose Maltose Lactose Polysaccharides Importance of Carbohydrates Proteins
Amino Acids Structure of Proteins Denaturation of Proteins Enzymes
Mechanism of Enzyme Action Vitamins
Classification of Vitamins Nucleic Acids
Structure of Nucleic Acids Biological Functions of Nucleic Acids Summary
Classification of Polymers
Classification Based on Source Classification Based on Structure of Polymers Classification Based on Mode of Polymerisation Classification Based on Molecular Forces Types of Polymerisation Reactions
Rubber Molecular Mass of Polymers
Biodegradable Polymers
Polymers of Commercial Importance
Summary
Drugs and their Classification
Classification of Drugs Drug-Target Interaction
Enzymes as Drug Targets Drug-Target Interaction
Receptors as Drug Targets Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs
Antacids Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs
Antihistamines Neurologically Active Drugs Antimicrobials Antifertility Drugs Chemicals in Food
Artificial Sweetening Agents Chemicals in Food
Food Preservatives Cleansing Agents
Soaps Summary

Biology

Microbes in Sewage Treatment

Biology

Pollination

Biology

Tissue-Culture

Topics Covered

Asexual Reproduction
Sexual reproduction
Pre-fertilisation Events Fertilisation Post-fertilisation Events Summary
Flower A Fascinating Organ Of Angiosperms
Pre-Fretilisation: Structures and Events
Stamen, Microsporangium and Pollen Grain The Pistil, Megasporangium (ovule) and Embryo sac Pollination Double Fertilisation
Post- Fertilisation : Structures and Events
Embryo Seed Summary
The Male Reproductive System
The Female Reproductive System
Gametogenesis
Menstural Cycle
Fertilisation and Implantation
Pregnancy and Embryonic Development
Parturition and Lactation
Summary
Reproductive health- Problems and Strategies
Population Explosion and Birth Control
Medical Termination of Pregnancy(MTP)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS)
Infertility
Summary
Mendels Law of Inheritance
Inheritance of One Gene
Incomplete Dominance and Co-dominance Inheritance of Two Genes
Law of Independent Assortment Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance Linkage and Recombination Sex Determination
Sex Determination in Humans Mutation
Genetic Disorders
Pedigree Analysis Mendelian Disorders Chromosomal disorders Summary
The DNA
Structure of Polynucleotide Chain Packaging of DNA Helix The Search for Genetic Material
The Genetic Material is DNA Properties of Genetic Material (DNA versus RNA) RNA World
Replication
The Experimental Proof The Machinery and the EnzymesThe Machinery and the Enzymes Transcription
Transcription Unit and the Gene Types of RNA and the process of Transcription Genetic Code
Mutations and Genetic Code tRNA the Adapter Molecule Translation
Regulation of Gene Expression
The Lac operon Human Genome Project
Salient Features of Human Genome DNA Fingureprinting
Summary
Origin of Life
Evolution of Life Forms - A Theory
What are the Evidences For Evolution?
What is Adaptive Radiation?
Biological Evolution
Mechanism of Evolution
Hardy-Weinberg Principle
A Brief Account of Evolution
Origin and Evolution of Man
Summary
Common Diseases in Humans
Immunity
Innate Immunity Acquired Immunity Active and Passive Immunity Vaccination and Immunisation Allergies Auto Immunity Immune System in the Body Aids
Cancer
Drugs and Alcohol Abuse
Summary
Animal Husbandry
Management of Farms and Farm Animals Poultry Farm Management Animal Breeding Bee-keeping Fisheries Plant Breeding
What is Plant Breeding? Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality Single Cell Protein (SCP)
Tissue Culture
Summary
Microbes in Household products
Microbes in Industrial products
Antibiotics Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules Microbes in Sewage Treatment
10.4 Microbes in Production of Biogas
10.5 Microbes in Biocontrol Agents
10.6 Microbes or Biofertilisers
Summary
Principles of Biotechnology
Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
Restriction Enzymes Cloning Vectors Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA) Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology
Summary
Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
Biotechnical Applications in Medicine
Genetically Engineered Insulin Gene Therapy Molecular Diagnosis Transgenic Animals
Ethical Issues
Summary
Organism and its Environment
Major Abiotic Factors Responses to Abiotic Factors Adaptations Populations
Population Attributes Population Growth Life History Variation Population Interactions Summary
Ecosystem- Struture and Function
Productivity
Decomposition
Energy Flow
Ecological Pyramids
Ecological Succession
Succession of Plants Nutrient Cycling
Ecosystem Carbon Cycle Ecosystem Phosphorus Cycle Ecosystem Services
Summary
Biodiversity
How Many Species are there on Earth and How Many in India? Patterns of Biodiversity The importance of Species Diversity to the Ecosystem Loss of Biodiversity Biodiversity Conservation
Why Should We Conserve Biodiversity? How do we conserve Biodiversity? Summary
Air Pollution and its Control
Controlling Vehicular Air Pollution: A Case Study of Delhi Water Pollution and its Control
Domestic Sewage and Industrial Effluents A Case Study of Integrated Waste Water Treatment Solid Wastes
Case Study of Remedy for Plastic Waste Agro- Chemicals and their Effects
Case Study of Organic Farming Radio Active Wastes
Green House Effect and Global Warming
Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance
Deforestation
Summary

Mathematics

Area between Two Curves

Mathematics

Equation of Tangent

Mathematics

Tangents and Normals

Topics Covered

Introduction
Types of Relations
Types of Functions
Composition of Functions and Invertible Function
Binary Operations
Summary
Introduction
Basic Concepts
Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Summary
Introduction
Matrix
Order of a matrix Types of Matrices
Equality of matrices Operations on Matrices
Addition of matrices Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar Properties of matrix addition Properties of scalar multiplication of a matrix Multiplication of matrices Properties of multiplication of matrices Transpose of a Matrix
Properties of transpose of the matrices Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices
Elementary Operation (Transformation) of a Matrix
Invertible Matrices
Inverse of a matrix by elementary operations Summary
Introduction
Determinant
Properties of Determinants
Area of a Triangle
Minors and Cofactors
Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix
Adjoint of a matrix Applications of Determinants and Matrices
Solution of system of linear equations using inverse of a Matrix Summary
Introduction
Continuity
Algebra of continuous functions Differentiability
Derivatives of composite functions Derivatives of implicit functions Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
Logarithmic Differentiation
Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms
Second Order Derivative
Mean Value Theorem
Summary
Introduction
Rate of Change of Quantities
Increasing and Decreasing Functions
Tangents and Normals
Approximations
Maxima and Minima
Maximum and Minimum Values of a Function in a Closed Interval Summary
Introduction
Integration as an Inverse Process of Differentiation
Some properties of indefinite integral Comparison between differentiation and integration Methods of Integration
Integrals of Some Particular Functions
Integration by Partial Fractions
Integration by Parts
Integral of the type Definite Integral
Definite integral as the limit of a sum Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Some Properties of Definite Integrals
Summary
Introduction
Area under Simple Curves
The area of the region bounded by a curve and a line Area between Two Curves
Summary
Introduction
Basic Concepts
General and Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation
Formation of a Differential Equation whose General Solution is given
Methods of Solving First Order, First Degree Differential Equations
equations with variables separable Homogeneous differential equations Linear differential equations Summary
Introduction
Some Basic Concepts
Types of Vectors
Addition of Vectors
Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
Components of a Vector Vector joining two Points Section Formula Product of Two Vectors
Projection of a vector on a line Vector (or cross) product of two vectors Scalar (or dot) product of two vectors Summary
Introduction
Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Line
Relation between the direction cosines of a line Direction cosines of a line passing through two points Equation of a Line in Space
Equation of a line through a given point and parallel to a given vector b Equation of a line passing through two given points Angle between Two Lines
Shortest Distance between Two Lines
Distance between two skew lines Distance between parallel lines Plane
Equation of a plane in normal form Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point Plane passing through the intersection of two given planes Intercept form of the equation of a plane Coplanarity of Two Lines
Angle between Two Planes
Distance of a point from a plane
Angle between a Line and a Plane
Summary
Introduction
Linear Programming Problem and its Mathematical Formulation
Mathematical formulation of the problem Graphical method of solving linear programming problems Different Types of Linear Programming Problems
Summary
Introduction
Conditional Probability
Properties of conditional probability Multiplication Theorem on Probability
Independent Events
Bayes Theorem
Partition of a sample space and Theorem of total probability Random Variables and its Probability Distributions
Probability distribution of a random variable Mean of a random variable Variance of a random variable Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution
Bernoulli trials Binomial distribution Summary
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