Bigger Smaller

Shapes around us

Movements

Inside and outside

Nearer and farther

On and under

Above and below

Top and bottom

Before and After

Between

Understanding Shapes

Shapes around us

Movements

Inside and outside

Nearer and farther

On and under

Above and below

Top and bottom

Before and After

Between

Understanding Shapes

Introduction

Number names

Counting 1 to 9

Concept of zero

Number names

Counting 1 to 9

Concept of zero

Introduction

Addition

Addition

Introduction

Subtraction

Subtraction

Introduction

Numbers from 10 to 20

Group of tens and ones

Numbers from 10 to 20

Group of tens and ones

Introduction

Time

clock

Minu s day

Time

clock

Minu s day

Introduction

Longer and Shorter

Big and Small

Tall and short

Thick and Thin

Heavy and light

Measurement

Longer and Shorter

Big and Small

Tall and short

Thick and Thin

Heavy and light

Measurement

Introduction

Numbers from 21 to 30

Numbers from 31 to 40

Numbers from 41 to 50

Facts about number 21 to 50

Numbers from 21 to 30

Numbers from 31 to 40

Numbers from 41 to 50

Facts about number 21 to 50

Introduction

Data

Pictorial representation of data

Data

Pictorial representation of data

Introduction

Patterns

Making Patterns

Pattern Using Numbers

Patterns

Making Patterns

Pattern Using Numbers

Introduction

Numbers from 51 to 60

Numbers from 61 to 70

Numbers from 71 to 80

Numbers from 81 to 90

Numbers from 91 to 100

Numbers on the abacus

Numbers from 51 to 60

Numbers from 61 to 70

Numbers from 71 to 80

Numbers from 81 to 90

Numbers from 91 to 100

Numbers on the abacus

Introduction

Money money

Notes and Coins in India

Money money

Notes and Coins in India

Introduction

Ordinal Number

How many

Collection

Ordinal Number

How many

Collection

Introduction

Myself

Summary

Myself

Summary

Introduction

Living Things and Non Living Things

Breathing

Growth

Movement

Food to Grow and to Live

Summary

Living Things and Non Living Things

Breathing

Growth

Movement

Food to Grow and to Live

Summary

Introduction

Plant Life

Shrubs

Herbs

Climbers

Creepers

Trees

Parts of a Plant

Roots

Stem

Leaves

Flowers and Fruits

Thorns

Seeds

Plants - their Uses

Summary

Plant Life

Shrubs

Herbs

Climbers

Creepers

Trees

Parts of a Plant

Roots

Stem

Leaves

Flowers and Fruits

Thorns

Seeds

Plants - their Uses

Summary

Introduction

Animal Life

Food of Animals

Homes of Animals

More about Animals

Summary

Animal Life

Food of Animals

Homes of Animals

More about Animals

Summary

Introduction

Air Around Us

Air Fills Space

Air has Weight

Air is Needed to Make Things Burn

We Cannot Live Without Air

Animals and Plants Need Air to Live

Water is a Need for Life

Plants Need Water

Animals Need Water

Summary

Air Around Us

Air Fills Space

Air has Weight

Air is Needed to Make Things Burn

We Cannot Live Without Air

Animals and Plants Need Air to Live

Water is a Need for Life

Plants Need Water

Animals Need Water

Summary

Introduction

Our Universe

The Sun

The Moon

Stars

Summary

Our Universe

The Sun

The Moon

Stars

Summary

>Introduction

Major Directions

Summary

Major Directions

Summary

Introduction

Human Body

Sense Organs

Eyes

Ears

Nose

Tongue

Skin

Your Mouth

Your Face

Your Hands

Hair

Bathing

Summary

Human Body

Sense Organs

Eyes

Ears

Nose

Tongue

Skin

Your Mouth

Your Face

Your Hands

Hair

Bathing

Summary

Introduction

Plants give us Food

Animals give us Food

Protective Food

Vegetarians and Non-vegetarians

Summary

Plants give us Food

Animals give us Food

Protective Food

Vegetarians and Non-vegetarians

Summary

Introduction

Clothes we wear during Summer

Clothes we wear during Rainy season

Clothes we wear during Winter

Summary

Clothes we wear during Summer

Clothes we wear during Rainy season

Clothes we wear during Winter

Summary

Introduction

Exercise

Good Habits

More Good Habits

Healthy Eating Habits

Play

Sleep

We Need Pure Air to Breathe

We Need Pure Water to Drink

We Need Clothes to Cover Our Body

Summary

Exercise

Good Habits

More Good Habits

Healthy Eating Habits

Play

Sleep

We Need Pure Air to Breathe

We Need Pure Water to Drink

We Need Clothes to Cover Our Body

Summary

Introduction

House

Types of Houses

We Need a House to Live In

Some Other Shelters

People Engaged in Making Houses

Resting

Summary

House

Types of Houses

We Need a House to Live In

Some Other Shelters

People Engaged in Making Houses

Resting

Summary

Introduction

First Aid

Safety While Playing

Safety While Walking

Traffic Lights

Safety While Swimming

Safety While Riding a Bus

Safety While Handling Fire

Safety While Working with Tools

Summary

First Aid

Safety While Playing

Safety While Walking

Traffic Lights

Safety While Swimming

Safety While Riding a Bus

Safety While Handling Fire

Safety While Working with Tools

Summary

Introduction

Large Family

Small Family

Joint Family

Summary

Large Family

Small Family

Joint Family

Summary

Introduction

Our Neighbourhood

Post Office

Market

Bus Station

Railway Station

Airport

Bank

Hospital

Fire Station

Police Station

Summary

Our Neighbourhood

Post Office

Market

Bus Station

Railway Station

Airport

Bank

Hospital

Fire Station

Police Station

Summary

Introduction

Our School

Our Classroom

Our Playground

Summary

Our School

Our Classroom

Our Playground

Summary

Introduction

Celebrations

Festivals

Summary

Celebrations

Festivals

Summary

Poem

New Words

Different Kinds of House

New Words

Different Kinds of House

Story

New Words

Different types of Animals Lives in Different Shelters

New Words

Different types of Animals Lives in Different Shelters

Poem

New Words

Water

New Words

Water

Story

New Words

Animal livings on both Land and in Water

New Words

Animal livings on both Land and in Water

Poem

New Words

Face Expressions

New Words

Face Expressions

Story

New Words

Colour

New Words

Colour

Poem

New Words

Different kinds of Birds

New Words

Different kinds of Birds

Story

New Words

Tree and Fruits

New Words

Tree and Fruits

Poem

New Words

Merry Go Round

New Words

Merry Go Round

Story

New Words

Circle

New Words

Circle

Poem

New Words

An Apple

New Words

An Apple

Story

New Words

Parts of a Plant

New Words

Parts of a Plant

Story

New Words

Mango

New Words

Mango

Poem

New Words

Kite Festival

New Words

Kite Festival

Story

New Words

Making of a Kite

New Words

Making of a Kite

Poem

New Words

Crawling

New Words

Crawling

Story

New Words

The Tiger

New Words

The Tiger

Poem

New Words

Clouds

New Words

Clouds

Story

New Words

Rainbow

New Words

Rainbow

Poem

New Words

Different kinds of Workers

New Words

Different kinds of Workers

Story

New Words

Some facts about Elephants

New Words

Some facts about Elephants

Introduction

2D shapes

3D objects

Drawing circle from cylinder and sphere

2D shapes

3D objects

Drawing circle from cylinder and sphere

Introduction

Counting Numbers

Even and odd Numbers

Counting in Groups

Position of objects

Counting Numbers

Even and odd Numbers

Counting in Groups

Position of objects

Introduction

Weight

Weight balance

Measurements

Weight

Weight balance

Measurements

Two Digit numbers in tens and ones

Group of tens and ones

Expansion of numbers through tens and ones

Making hundreds using abacus

Group of tens and ones

Expansion of numbers through tens and ones

Making hundreds using abacus

Introduction

Patterns around us

Number Patterns

Making Patterns

Patterns around us

Number Patterns

Making Patterns

Shapes

Understanding Shapes

Plane figures sides and vertices

Shapes with tangrams

Understanding Shapes

Plane figures sides and vertices

Shapes with tangrams

Introduction

Capacity

Measurements of Capacity

Capacity

Measurements of Capacity

Place value of two digit numbers

Comparing Numbers

Arranging Ascending order of 2 digit numbers

Arranging Descending order of 2-digit numbers

Comparison of 2 digit numbers

Comparing Numbers

Arranging Ascending order of 2 digit numbers

Arranging Descending order of 2-digit numbers

Comparison of 2 digit numbers

Introduction

Time

Day and week

Months & Years

Seasons

Longer and shorter duration events

Time

Day and week

Months & Years

Seasons

Longer and shorter duration events

Mental Arithmetic

Mental calculation

Sum of Counting Numbers

Mental calculation

Sum of Counting Numbers

Straight lines

Curved lines

Difference between straight line and curved line

Line in Pictures

Curved lines

Difference between straight line and curved line

Line in Pictures

Regrouping of numbers

Addition

Addition of two digit Numbers

Subtraction

Addition of 3 digit numbers

Addition properties

Subtraction of 2 digit numbers

Subtraction of 3 digit numbers

Subtraction properties

Addition

Addition of two digit Numbers

Subtraction

Addition of 3 digit numbers

Addition properties

Subtraction of 2 digit numbers

Subtraction of 3 digit numbers

Subtraction properties

Introduction

Length

Units of length

Use of a scale or ruler

Length

Units of length

Use of a scale or ruler

Addition of 2 digit numbers with carrying

Addition of 2 digit numbers without carrying

Subtraction of 2 digit numbers with Borrowing

Subtraction of 2 digit numbers without Borrowing

Multiplication

Division

Money

Addition of 2 digit numbers without carrying

Subtraction of 2 digit numbers with Borrowing

Subtraction of 2 digit numbers without Borrowing

Multiplication

Division

Money

Introduction

Data

Pictorial representation of data

Pictograph

Data

Pictorial representation of data

Pictograph

Introduction

About myself

Summary

About myself

Summary

Introduction

Different stages of growth in Ninas life

People look different from each other

Summary

Different stages of growth in Ninas life

People look different from each other

Summary

Introduction

Parts of the Plant

Trees

Thorny Plants

Herbs

Shrubs

Creepers

Climbers

Plants give us Food

Plants for many things other than Food

Some other uses of Plants

Dried Plants

Plants need Caring

Summary

Parts of the Plant

Trees

Thorny Plants

Herbs

Shrubs

Creepers

Climbers

Plants give us Food

Plants for many things other than Food

Some other uses of Plants

Dried Plants

Plants need Caring

Summary

Introduction

Wild Animals

Wild Animals are of Different Sizes

Natural Shelters

Carnivores

Herbivores

Omnivores

Scavengers

Animals for Food

Animals for other Things

Summary

Wild Animals

Wild Animals are of Different Sizes

Natural Shelters

Carnivores

Herbivores

Omnivores

Scavengers

Animals for Food

Animals for other Things

Summary

Introduction

Air is a Mixture of Gases

Air contains Water Vapour

Air has Smoke in it

Air has Germs in it

Air has Dust Particles in it

Wind

Wind has Direction

Wind Force is Useful

Clean and Fresh Air

Summary

Air is a Mixture of Gases

Air contains Water Vapour

Air has Smoke in it

Air has Germs in it

Air has Dust Particles in it

Wind

Wind has Direction

Wind Force is Useful

Clean and Fresh Air

Summary

Introduction

Three forms of Water

Liquid form of Water

Solid form of Water

Gaseous form of Water

We get Water from many Sources

Drinking Water

We use Water for Various Purposes

All Water is not Clean

We should Clean Water before use

Water Cycle

Summary

Three forms of Water

Liquid form of Water

Solid form of Water

Gaseous form of Water

We get Water from many Sources

Drinking Water

We use Water for Various Purposes

All Water is not Clean

We should Clean Water before use

Water Cycle

Summary

Introduction

Shadow

Shadows change In Direction

Summary

Shadow

Shadows change In Direction

Summary

Introduction

The sun

The moon

Stars

Summary

The sun

The moon

Stars

Summary

Introduction

Air

Water

Waterfalls

Our Earth

Land

Plains

Hills

Mountains

Valleys

Deserts

Lakes

Save the Earth

Summary

Air

Water

Waterfalls

Our Earth

Land

Plains

Hills

Mountains

Valleys

Deserts

Lakes

Save the Earth

Summary

Introduction

Seasons

Summer

Monsoon

Winter

Summary

Seasons

Summer

Monsoon

Winter

Summary

Introduction

Major Directions

Map

Time

Summary

Major Directions

Map

Time

Summary

Introduction

Story of Wheels

Summary

Story of Wheels

Summary

Introduction

Exercise

Body Posture

Sense Organs

Your Eyes

Your Ears

Your Nose

Your Skin

Your Tongue

Important parts inside our body

Face

Bones

Muscles

Summary

Exercise

Body Posture

Sense Organs

Your Eyes

Your Ears

Your Nose

Your Skin

Your Tongue

Important parts inside our body

Face

Bones

Muscles

Summary

Introduction

Healthy eating Habits

Energy giving Food

Body building Food

Food we Eat

Protective Food

Food Hygiene

Plants give us Food

Food from Animals and Birds

Summary

Healthy eating Habits

Energy giving Food

Body building Food

Food we Eat

Protective Food

Food Hygiene

Plants give us Food

Food from Animals and Birds

Summary

Introduction

Different kinds of Clothes in India

Clothes worn in Special Jobs

Clothes we wear during Rainy Season

Clothes we wear during Summer

Clothes we wear during Winter

Silk

Care of Clothes

Summary

Different kinds of Clothes in India

Clothes worn in Special Jobs

Clothes we wear during Rainy Season

Clothes we wear during Summer

Clothes we wear during Winter

Silk

Care of Clothes

Summary

Introduction

Exercise

Healthy eating Habits

Play

Sleep

We need pure Air to Breathe

We need pure Water to Drink

Good Food Habits

We need good Food to Keep us Healthy

More good Habits

Good Habits at Home

Toilet Manners

Summary

Exercise

Healthy eating Habits

Play

Sleep

We need pure Air to Breathe

We need pure Water to Drink

Good Food Habits

We need good Food to Keep us Healthy

More good Habits

Good Habits at Home

Toilet Manners

Summary

Introduction

An Ideal House

A Pucca House

Caves

Houses in Villages

Houses in Towns and Cities

Type of Houses

Bungalows

Flats

Caravan

Roofs

People engaged In Making Houses

Summary

An Ideal House

A Pucca House

Caves

Houses in Villages

Houses in Towns and Cities

Type of Houses

Bungalows

Flats

Caravan

Roofs

People engaged In Making Houses

Summary

Introduction

First Aid

Safety at Home

Safety while Handling Fire

Safety on the Road

Traffic Lights

Safety while Travelling by Bus

Safety in a Car

Safety on the Bicycle

Safety while Swimming

Safety while Playing

Safety while Working with Tools

Helping Others

Summary

First Aid

Safety at Home

Safety while Handling Fire

Safety on the Road

Traffic Lights

Safety while Travelling by Bus

Safety in a Car

Safety on the Bicycle

Safety while Swimming

Safety while Playing

Safety while Working with Tools

Helping Others

Summary

Introduction

My Family

Nuclear Family

Large Family

Joint Family

Summary

My Family

Nuclear Family

Large Family

Joint Family

Summary

Introduction

Our Neighbourhood

Schools/Colleges

Post Office

Police Station

Bus Stop

Railway Station

Fire Fighters

The Hospital

Market

Bank

Summary

Our Neighbourhood

Schools/Colleges

Post Office

Police Station

Bus Stop

Railway Station

Fire Fighters

The Hospital

Market

Bank

Summary

Introduction

Means of Transport

Roadways

Railways

Waterways

Airways

Summary

Means of Transport

Roadways

Railways

Waterways

Airways

Summary

Introduction

Places of Worship

Summary

Places of Worship

Summary

Introduction

Celebrations

Festivals

National Festivals

Religious Festivals

Harvest Festivals

Summary

Celebrations

Festivals

National Festivals

Religious Festivals

Harvest Festivals

Summary

Poem

New Words

Safety rules at School

New Words

Safety rules at School

Story

New Words

Giraffe

New Words

Giraffe

Poem

New Words

The Padding Boat

New Words

The Padding Boat

Poem

New Words

Famous Bells

New Words

Famous Bells

Poem

New Words

Personal Hygiene

New Words

Personal Hygiene

Poem

New Words

Animals in Action

New Words

Animals in Action

Poem

New Words

Kangaroo

New Words

Kangaroo

Story

New Words

Animals in Groups

New Words

Animals in Groups

Poem

New Words

Have a good Smile

New Words

Have a good Smile

Story

New Words

The Sun

New Words

The Sun

Poem

New Words

Smile

New Words

Smile

Poem

New Words

How is the Rain Formed

New Words

How is the Rain Formed

Story

New Words

Intresting Facts about Snails

New Words

Intresting Facts about Snails

Poem

New Words

Indoor Games

New Words

Indoor Games

Poem

New Words

Different Zones in India

New Words

Different Zones in India

Story

New Words

Interesting Facts about Rabbits

New Words

Interesting Facts about Rabbits

Poem

New Words

Clown

New Words

Clown

Poem

New Words

ZigZag Walk

New Words

ZigZag Walk

Story

New words

Teddy Bear

New words

Teddy Bear

Poem

New Words

People engaged in Building Houses

New Words

People engaged in Building Houses

Story

New Words

Raja Birbal

New Words

Raja Birbal

Story

New Words

Computer Mouse

New Words

Computer Mouse

Poem

New Words

Musical Instruments

New Words

Musical Instruments

Story

New Words

Jaltarang

New Words

Jaltarang

Poem

New Words

Interjection

New Words

Interjection

Poem

New Words

Relationships

New Words

Relationships

Story

New Words

Porridge

New Words

Porridge

Poem

New Words

Animals Sounds

New Words

Animals Sounds

Story

New Words

Sound Produced by a Grasshopper

New Words

Sound Produced by a Grasshopper

Poem

New Words

Owl

New Words

Owl

Introduction

2D Shapes

3D Shapes

Symmetry

2D Shapes

3D Shapes

Symmetry

Numbers

Counting Numbers

Even and odd numbers

Ascending and descending order of numbers

Place value

Four Digit Numbers

Counting thousands

Comparing numbers

Counting Numbers

Even and odd numbers

Ascending and descending order of numbers

Place value

Four Digit Numbers

Counting thousands

Comparing numbers

Introduction

Addition

Subtraction

Estimation

Problems on addition

Addition

Subtraction

Estimation

Problems on addition

Introduction

Measurement of length

Units of length

Ruler for measuring length

Conversion of Units

Measurement of length

Units of length

Ruler for measuring length

Conversion of Units

Fun with shapes

Sides and Vertices

Tangram

Tiling shapes

Lines

Polygons

Sides and Vertices

Tangram

Tiling shapes

Lines

Polygons

Addition of Numbers with regrouping

Subtraction of numbers with borrowing

Addition using place value

Subtraction of numbers with borrowing

Addition using place value

Introduction

Time

Am and Pm

Calendar

Time

Am and Pm

Calendar

Introduction

Weights

Units of weight

Comparision of weights

Conversion of units

Weights

Units of weight

Comparision of weights

Conversion of units

Introduction

Multiplication

Multiplication by 2 digit numbers

Multiplication by 10,100 and 1000

Properties of Multiplication

Multiplication Facts

Problems on Multiplication

Column multiplication

Multiplication

Multiplication by 2 digit numbers

Multiplication by 10,100 and 1000

Properties of Multiplication

Multiplication Facts

Problems on Multiplication

Column multiplication

Introduction

Patterns everywhere

Making Patterns

Number Patterns

Patterns in Multiplication

Patterns everywhere

Making Patterns

Number Patterns

Patterns in Multiplication

Introduction

Capacity

Units of capacity

Comparing Capacity

Conversion of units

Capacity

Units of capacity

Comparing Capacity

Conversion of units

Introduction

Equal sharing

Division

Short Division

Long division

Mental Arithmetic

Equal sharing

Division

Short Division

Long division

Mental Arithmetic

Introduction

Data

Pictorial representation of data

Tally marks

Pictograph

Data

Pictorial representation of data

Tally marks

Pictograph

Introduction

Money

Currency Facts

Conversion of Rupees and paise

Making bills

Making coins and notes

Money

Currency Facts

Conversion of Rupees and paise

Making bills

Making coins and notes

Introduction

Environment

Animals

Birds

Habitat of Animals & Birds

Sounds and Movements of Animals and Birds

Summary

Environment

Animals

Birds

Habitat of Animals & Birds

Sounds and Movements of Animals and Birds

Summary

Introduction

Plants

Trees

Summary

Plants

Trees

Summary

Introduction

Uses of Water

Water-more or less

Water from where

Colours

Summary

Uses of Water

Water-more or less

Water from where

Colours

Summary

Introduction

Family

Relationships

Summary

Family

Relationships

Summary

Introduction

Different types of Houses

Home Sweet Home

Summary

Different types of Houses

Home Sweet Home

Summary

Introduction

Variety of Food

Food Functions

Variety of Food

Food Functions

Birds

Identifying the birds

Types of beaks and feathers of birds

Identifying the birds

Types of beaks and feathers of birds

Watering Plants

Plants

Rain

Clouds

Rainbow

Plants

Rain

Clouds

Rainbow

Cooking

Things that are eaten raw and cooked

Coal

Wood and Cowdung cakes

Sunlight

Things that are eaten raw and cooked

Coal

Wood and Cowdung cakes

Sunlight

Introduction

The Train

The Different modes of transport

Summary

The Train

The Different modes of transport

Summary

Work Done by different people

buildings and the work done in them

buildings and the work done in them

Family

Relationships

Braille Script

Relationships

Braille Script

Family & Relationships

Where does what we eat come from?

Where does what we eat come from?

Games

Indoor games

Indoor games

Introduction

Means of Communication

Post Office

Letters

Summary

Means of Communication

Post Office

Letters

Summary

Introduction

Types of Houses

Houses in Hilly areas

House of snow (Igloo)

Types of Houses

Houses in Hilly areas

House of snow (Igloo)

Birds

Pets

Pets

Water

Sources of Water

Rain Water Harvesting

Water should be used wisely

Sources of Water

Rain Water Harvesting

Water should be used wisely

Diversity in the families

Relationships

Family Tree

Relationships

Family Tree

Introduction

Directions

Location Maps

Symbols for Location Maps

Summary

Directions

Location Maps

Symbols for Location Maps

Summary

Introduction

Types of clothes

From thread to cloth

Summary

Types of clothes

From thread to cloth

Summary

Food web

Food chain

Food chain

Poem

New Words

Good Morning

New Words

Good Morning

New Words

Story

Mughal Gardens

Story

Mughal Gardens

Poem

New Words

Bird Talk

New Words

Bird Talk

Story

New Words

Birds Arround Us

New Words

Birds Arround Us

How does a Seed Grows

Poem

New Words

Poem

New Words

Story

New Words

Turnip

New Words

Turnip

Poem

New Words

Shells

New Words

Shells

Story

New Words

Ornamental Fish

New Words

Ornamental Fish

Hot Air Balloon

New Words

Poem

New Words

Poem

Story

New Words

Butterflies

New Words

Butterflies

Poem

New Words

Trains

New Words

Trains

Road Safety

Story

New Words

Story

New Words

New Words

Dog Breeds

Poem

Dog Breeds

Poem

Story

New Words

Interesting Facts about Tiger

New Words

Interesting Facts about Tiger

Poem

New Words

Journey of a Letter

New Words

Journey of a Letter

Story

New Words

Raksha Bandhan

New Words

Raksha Bandhan

Poem

New Words

Giants in Nature

New Words

Giants in Nature

Story

New Words

Helping Special Children

New Words

Helping Special Children

Poem

New Words

How creatures move

New Words

How creatures move

Story

New Words

The ship of the desert

New Words

The ship of the desert

Shapes

Shapes with tangrams

Tiling Tessellating Shapes

Nets for building 3-D shapes

Numbering system

Shapes with tangrams

Tiling Tessellating Shapes

Nets for building 3-D shapes

Numbering system

Measurement of length

Measures of length

Conversion of Length

Addition and Subtraction with Conversion

Problems on metres and centimetres

Measures of length

Conversion of Length

Addition and Subtraction with Conversion

Problems on metres and centimetres

Multiplication

Multiplication Tables

Estimation

Mental calculation

Multiplication Tables

Estimation

Mental calculation

Introduction

Time

AM and PM

Dates

The 24 Hour clock

Duration of time

Time

AM and PM

Dates

The 24 Hour clock

Duration of time

Maps

Objects

View of objects

position of objects

Objects

View of objects

position of objects

Money

Rupees and paise

Conversion of Rupees and Paise

Finding unit and multiple costs

Shopping

Rupees and paise

Conversion of Rupees and Paise

Finding unit and multiple costs

Shopping

Capacity

Measures of capacity

Volume

Addition and Subtraction by Conversion

Conversion of Standard Unit of Capacity

Measures of capacity

Volume

Addition and Subtraction by Conversion

Conversion of Standard Unit of Capacity

Circle

Elements of a circle

Drawing circles

Elements of a circle

Drawing circles

Introduction

Fractions

Fraction- part of a whole

Types of fractions

Equivalent fractions

Fractions

Fraction- part of a whole

Types of fractions

Equivalent fractions

Patterns around us

Patterns

Geometrical pattern based on symmetry

Number Patterns

Patterns in multiplication and division

Making Patterns

Patterns

Geometrical pattern based on symmetry

Number Patterns

Patterns in multiplication and division

Making Patterns

Addition

Subtraction

Multiplication

Division

Estimation

Subtraction

Multiplication

Division

Estimation

Weights

Mass

Measurements

Mass

Measurements

Introduction

Area

Perimeter

Square and Rectangle

Finding Area and perimeter using formula

Area

Perimeter

Square and Rectangle

Finding Area and perimeter using formula

Introduction

Data Handling

Pictograph

Bar graph

Data Handling

Pictograph

Bar graph

Means of transport

Bicycle ride

Bicycle ride

Introduction

Wild Animals

Elephants

Animals that live in groups

Wild Animals

Elephants

Animals that live in groups

Introduction

Trees in Danger

The Village Panchayat

Summary

Trees in Danger

The Village Panchayat

Summary

School

Bee-keeping

Bee-keeping

Railways

Train

Train

Means of Transport

Land Transport

Animal means of Transport

Water Transport

Air transport

Land Transport

Animal means of Transport

Water Transport

Air transport

Introduction

Different kinds of Transport

Land Transport

Train

Summary

Different kinds of Transport

Land Transport

Train

Summary

Family

Relationships

Relationships

Games

Indoor games

Indoor games

Flowers and fruits

Functions of flowers

The World of Flowers

Functions of flowers

The World of Flowers

Home sweet Home

A Changing House

A Changing House

sources of water

How does Water become Dirty?

Soluble substances

Insoluble Substances

How does Water become Dirty?

Soluble substances

Insoluble Substances

Germination of Seeds

Production of Seeds

Growing Plants

Production of Seeds

Growing Plants

In the Bazaar

Vegetables

Vegetables

Birds

Birds Nest

Bird Feet Different Kind for Different Needs

Bird Beaks ? According to the Food

Animal Teeth

Birds Nest

Bird Feet Different Kind for Different Needs

Bird Beaks ? According to the Food

Animal Teeth

Introduction

Water, Water

Types of Houses

Comparison of Houses in Town and Village

Care of House

Summary

Water, Water

Types of Houses

Comparison of Houses in Town and Village

Care of House

Summary

Introduction

Water

Water pollution

Disease caused due to drinking dirty water

Control of water pollution

Summary

Water

Water pollution

Disease caused due to drinking dirty water

Control of water pollution

Summary

Introduction

Plants

Herbs

Shrubs

Trees

Parts of a plant

Roots

Stem

Leaves

Summary

Plants

Herbs

Shrubs

Trees

Parts of a plant

Roots

Stem

Leaves

Summary

Introduction

Religious Festivals

National Festivals

Celebrating Bihu

Summary

Harvest Festivals

Religious Festivals

National Festivals

Celebrating Bihu

Summary

Harvest Festivals

Clothes

From thread to Cloth

From thread to Cloth

Climate

Trees and plants

Deserts

Trees and plants

Deserts

Poem

New Words

Wake Up Early

New Words

Wake Up Early

Story

New Words

Biological Clock

New Words

Biological Clock

Poem

New Words

Noses

New Words

Noses

Story

New Words

Adaptation of Trees

New Words

Adaptation of Trees

Poem

New Words

New Words

Poem

New Words

Exercise

New Words

Exercise

Story

New Words

Archery

New Words

Archery

Poem

New Words

Tell me Why

New Words

Tell me Why

Story

New Words

Alice in Wonderland

New Words

Alice in Wonderland

Poem

New Words

Why do Onions make us Cry

New Words

Why do Onions make us Cry

Poem

New Words

Phobia

New Words

Phobia

Story

New Words

Sign Language

New Words

Sign Language

Poem

New Words

Abraham Lincoln

New Words

Abraham Lincoln

Poem

New Words

Donkey

New Words

Donkey

Poem

New Words

Care for your Pets

New Words

Care for your Pets

Story

New Words

Cow

New Words

Cow

Story

New words

Protect Animals

New words

Protect Animals

Poem

New Words

Wigwams

New Words

Wigwams

Story

New Words

Birbal

New Words

Birbal

Poem

New Words

Watering Plants

New Words

Watering Plants

Story

New Words

Coconut Tree

New Words

Coconut Tree

Poem

New Words

Tansen

New Words

Tansen

Poem

New Words

Library

New Words

Library

Story

New Words

Books

New Words

Books

Poem

New Words

Information about Scotland

New Words

Information about Scotland

Story

New Words

Puppets

New Words

Puppets

Shapes

Weights

Number System

Capacity

Estimations

Large numbers

Time

Money

Roman Numerals

Weights

Number System

Capacity

Estimations

Large numbers

Time

Money

Roman Numerals

Line, Ray and Line segment

Triangle

Circles

Angles

Type of Angles

Uses of Ruler, Protractor and set squares

Measuring Angles

Quadrilaterals

Polygons

Triangle

Circles

Angles

Type of Angles

Uses of Ruler, Protractor and set squares

Measuring Angles

Quadrilaterals

Polygons

Introduction to Area and perimeter

Perimeter

Area

Finding Area

Perimeter

Area

Finding Area

Parts of a whole

Types of Fractions

Fractions

Ascending and descending order of fractions

Reciprocal of fractions

Unit of fractions

Comparison of fractions

Conversion of fractions

Estimated fractions

Types of Fractions

Fractions

Ascending and descending order of fractions

Reciprocal of fractions

Unit of fractions

Comparison of fractions

Conversion of fractions

Estimated fractions

Make your Pattern

Mirror Halves

Line of Symmetry

Symmetry

Rotational Symmetry

Mirror Halves

Line of Symmetry

Symmetry

Rotational Symmetry

Multiples

Prime and composite numbers

Common Multiples

Factors

Common Factors

Highest Common Factor

Prime factorisation

Lowest Common Multiple

Co-prime numbers

Divisibility Test

Prime and composite numbers

Common Multiples

Factors

Common Factors

Highest Common Factor

Prime factorisation

Lowest Common Multiple

Co-prime numbers

Divisibility Test

Look for a Pattern

Patterns

Even and odd Number patterns

Square and Triangluar Numbers

Number Patterns

Patterns

Even and odd Number patterns

Square and Triangluar Numbers

Number Patterns

Introduction to Maps

Maps

Type of maps

Signs and Symbols

Directions

Maps

Type of maps

Signs and Symbols

Directions

2 Dimensional Shapes

3 Dimensional Shapes

Nets for making 3D Model

Drawing 3d objects in 2D

Drawing 2d shapes using 3d Objects

Rotation and Reflection of 2D shapes

3 Dimensional Shapes

Nets for making 3D Model

Drawing 3d objects in 2D

Drawing 2d shapes using 3d Objects

Rotation and Reflection of 2D shapes

Decimals

Operations of Decimals

Expansion of Decimals

Comparision of Decimals

Representing decimal fractions

Metric system of Measurements

Basic Units used in metric System

Conversion of metric units

Converting metric units to Decimals

Percentages

Operations of Decimals

Expansion of Decimals

Comparision of Decimals

Representing decimal fractions

Metric system of Measurements

Basic Units used in metric System

Conversion of metric units

Converting metric units to Decimals

Percentages

Area

Perimeter

Area of Parallogram

Perimeter

Area of Parallogram

Data

Collection and Organizing of Data

Making Tally Marks

Bar graphs

Pictograph

Graphical representation of data

Collection and Organizing of Data

Making Tally Marks

Bar graphs

Pictograph

Graphical representation of data

Maniratnam

Multiplication

Multiplication by lattice algorithm

Patterns in multiplication

Division

Multiplication

Multiplication by lattice algorithm

Patterns in multiplication

Division

Solids

Volume

Volume of cube

Volume of cuboid

Mass

Lengths

Volume

Volume of cube

Volume of cuboid

Mass

Lengths

Introduction

Sense Organs

The Eyes

The Ears

The Nose

The Tongue

The Skin

Tigers

Sense Organs

The Eyes

The Ears

The Nose

The Tongue

The Skin

Tigers

Snakes

First aid for snake bites

First aid for snake bites

Introduction

Digestive system

Stomach

Good food, good health

Body building food

Energy giving food

Food and hygiene

Digestive system

Stomach

Good food, good health

Body building food

Energy giving food

Food and hygiene

Microorganisms Introduction

Occurence of Microbes

Harmful Bacteria

Food Poisoning

Food Preservation

Occurence of Microbes

Harmful Bacteria

Food Poisoning

Food Preservation

Introduction

Sprouting of seeds

How does a big plant grow from a tiny seed?

Seeds of fruits

What is inside a seed?

Reproduction in plants

Seed dispersal

Sprouting of seeds

How does a big plant grow from a tiny seed?

Seeds of fruits

What is inside a seed?

Reproduction in plants

Seed dispersal

Introduction

Sources of water

Flood

Drought

Water pollution and its causes

Water harvesting

Sources of water

Flood

Drought

Water pollution and its causes

Water harvesting

Density

Soluble substances

Insoluble Substances

Solutions

Soluble substances

Insoluble Substances

Solutions

Spreading of diseases

Malaria

Malaria

A bus journey

Treasure from the earth

Petrol

Harmful effects of burning a fuel

Treasure from the earth

Petrol

Harmful effects of burning a fuel

Types of houses

Desert

Houses in mountainous regions

Desert

Houses in mountainous regions

Introduction

Breathing

Air

Characteristics of Air

Uses of Air

Summary

Breathing

Air

Characteristics of Air

Uses of Air

Summary

Cleanliness

Keeping cleanliness around the house

Keeping the neighbourhood clean

Steps to be taken clean surroundings

Keeping cleanliness around the house

Keeping the neighbourhood clean

Steps to be taken clean surroundings

Seeds

Vegetables

Growing of crops

Protection of crops

Vegetables

Growing of crops

Protection of crops

Introduction

Natural Resources

Forest Resources

Natural Resources

Forest Resources

Heredity

Acquired and Inherited Traits

Acquired and Inherited Traits

National Festivals

Dushera

Religious Festivals

Harvest Festivals

Raksha Bandhan

Holi

Dushera

Religious Festivals

Harvest Festivals

Raksha Bandhan

Holi

Introduction

Poem

New Words

History of Icecream

Summary

Poem

New Words

History of Icecream

Summary

Introduction

Story

New Words

Creativity

Summary

Story

New Words

Creativity

Summary

Introduction

Story

New Words

Folk Stories

Summary

Story

New Words

Folk Stories

Summary

Introduction

Poem

New Words

Many hands make light work

Summary

Poem

New Words

Many hands make light work

Summary

Introduction

Story

New Words

Imporatnce of Timely Action

Summary

Story

New Words

Imporatnce of Timely Action

Summary

Introduction

Story

New Words

Worry often gives a small thing a big shadow

Summary

Story

New Words

Worry often gives a small thing a big shadow

Summary

Introduction

Poem

New Words

About Shadows

Summary

Poem

New Words

About Shadows

Summary

Introduction

Poem

New Words

No pain no gain

Summary

Poem

New Words

No pain no gain

Summary

Introduction

Story

New Words

Experience is the best teacher

Summary

Story

New Words

Experience is the best teacher

Summary

Introduction

Poem

New Words

An idle mind is devil's workshop

Summary

Poem

New Words

An idle mind is devil's workshop

Summary

Introduction

Story

New Words

Time and tide wait for no man

Summary

Story

New Words

Time and tide wait for no man

Summary

Introduction

Poem

New Words

Speech is silver, Silence is golden

Summary

Poem

New Words

Speech is silver, Silence is golden

Summary

Introduction

Story

New Words

Give knave an inch and they will take a yard

Summary

Story

New Words

Give knave an inch and they will take a yard

Summary

Introduction

Poem

New Words

Human Mind

Summary

Poem

New Words

Human Mind

Summary

Introduction

Story

New Words

Every cloud has a silver lining

Summary

Story

New Words

Every cloud has a silver lining

Summary

Introduction

Poem

New Words

Importance of Friendship

Summary

Poem

New Words

Importance of Friendship

Summary

Introduction

Story

New Words

As you sow, so shall you reap

Summary

Story

New Words

As you sow, so shall you reap

Summary

Introduction

Poem

New Words

Life style in City and Village

Summary

Poem

New Words

Life style in City and Village

Summary

Introduction

Story

New Words

Train Accidents

Summary

Story

New Words

Train Accidents

Summary

Introduction

Poem

New Words

More about Malu Bhalu

Summary

Poem

New Words

More about Malu Bhalu

Summary

Introduction

Story

New Words

More about Ningthou and Family

Summary

Story

New Words

More about Ningthou and Family

Summary

Introduction

Comparing Numbers

Large Numbers in Practice

Using Brackets

Roman Numerals

Summary

Comparing Numbers

Large Numbers in Practice

Using Brackets

Roman Numerals

Summary

Introduction

Whole Numbers

The Number Line

Properties of Whole Numbers

Patterns in Whole Numbers

Summary

Whole Numbers

The Number Line

Properties of Whole Numbers

Patterns in Whole Numbers

Summary

Introduction

Factors and Multiples

Prime and Composite Numbers

Tests for Divisibility of Numbers

Common Factors and Common Multiples

Prime Factorisation

Highest Common Factor

Lowest Common Multiple

Summary

Factors and Multiples

Prime and Composite Numbers

Tests for Divisibility of Numbers

Common Factors and Common Multiples

Prime Factorisation

Highest Common Factor

Lowest Common Multiple

Summary

Introduction

A Line Segment

A Line

Intersecting Lines

Parallel Lines

Ray

Curves

Polygons

Angles

Triangles

Quadrilaterals

Circles

Summary

Points

A Line Segment

A Line

Intersecting Lines

Parallel Lines

Ray

Curves

Polygons

Angles

Triangles

Quadrilaterals

Circles

Summary

Points

Introduction

Measuring Line Segments

Angles â€“ Right and Straight

Angles Acute,Obtuse and Reflex

Measuring Angles

Perpendicular Lines

Classification of Triangles

Quadrilaterals

Polygons

Three Dimensional Shapes

Summary

Measuring Line Segments

Angles â€“ Right and Straight

Angles Acute,Obtuse and Reflex

Measuring Angles

Perpendicular Lines

Classification of Triangles

Quadrilaterals

Polygons

Three Dimensional Shapes

Summary

Introduction

Integers

Representation of Integers on a number line Ordering of integers Additon of Integers

Addition of Integers on a Number Line Subtraction of Integers with the help of a Number Line

Summary

Integers

Representation of Integers on a number line Ordering of integers Additon of Integers

Addition of Integers on a Number Line Subtraction of Integers with the help of a Number Line

Summary

Introduction

A Fraction

Fraction on the Number Line

Proper Fractions

Equivalent Fractions

Simplest Form of a Fraction

Like Fractions

Addition and Subtraction of Fractions

Adding or subtracting Like fractions Adding and Subtracting Fractions Summary

A Fraction

Fraction on the Number Line

Proper Fractions

Equivalent Fractions

Simplest Form of a Fraction

Like Fractions

Addition and Subtraction of Fractions

Adding or subtracting Like fractions Adding and Subtracting Fractions Summary

Introduction

Tenths

Hundredths

Comparing Decimals

Using Decimals

Addition of Numbers with Decimals

Subtraction of Decimals

Summary

Tenths

Hundredths

Comparing Decimals

Using Decimals

Addition of Numbers with Decimals

Subtraction of Decimals

Summary

Introduction

Recording Data

Organisation of Data

Pictograph

Interpretation of a Pictograph

Drawing a Pictograph

A Bar Graph

Interpretation of a bar graph Drawing a bar graph Summary

Recording Data

Organisation of Data

Pictograph

Interpretation of a Pictograph

Drawing a Pictograph

A Bar Graph

Interpretation of a bar graph Drawing a bar graph Summary

Introduction

Perimeter

Perimeter of a Rectangle Perimeter of Regular Shapes Area

Area of a rectangle Area of a square Summary

Perimeter

Perimeter of a Rectangle Perimeter of Regular Shapes Area

Area of a rectangle Area of a square Summary

Introduction

Matchstick Patterns

The Idea of a Variable

Use of Variables in Common Rules

Expressions with Variables

Using Expressions Practically

What is an Equation?

Summary

Matchstick Patterns

The Idea of a Variable

Use of Variables in Common Rules

Expressions with Variables

Using Expressions Practically

What is an Equation?

Summary

Introduction

Ratio

Proportion

Unitary Method

Summary

Ratio

Proportion

Unitary Method

Summary

Introduction

Making Symmetric Figures : Ink-blot Devils

Figures with Two Lines of Symmetry

Figures with Multiple (more than two) Lines of Symmetry

Reflection and Symmetry

Summary

Making Symmetric Figures : Ink-blot Devils

Figures with Two Lines of Symmetry

Figures with Multiple (more than two) Lines of Symmetry

Reflection and Symmetry

Summary

Introduction

The Circle

Construction of a Circle when its Radius is known A Line Segment

Construction of a Line Segment of a given Length Perpendiculars

Perpendicular to a Line through a Point on it Perpendicular to a Line through a Point not on it The Perpendicular bisector of a Line Segment Angles

Constructing an Angle of a given measure Constructing a copy of an Angle of unknown measure Bisector of an Angle Angles of Special Measures Summary

The Circle

Construction of a Circle when its Radius is known A Line Segment

Construction of a Line Segment of a given Length Perpendiculars

Perpendicular to a Line through a Point on it Perpendicular to a Line through a Point not on it The Perpendicular bisector of a Line Segment Angles

Constructing an Angle of a given measure Constructing a copy of an Angle of unknown measure Bisector of an Angle Angles of Special Measures Summary

Food Variety

Food Materials and Sources

Plant Parts and Animal Products as Food

What do Animals Eat?

Food Materials and Sources

Plant Parts and Animal Products as Food

What do Animals Eat?

What Do Different Food Items Contain?

What do Various Nutrients do for our Body?

Balanced Diet

Deficiency Diseases

What do Various Nutrients do for our Body?

Balanced Diet

Deficiency Diseases

Fibre

Spinning Cotton Yarn

Yarn to Fabric

Knitting History of Clothing Material

Spinning Cotton Yarn

Yarn to Fabric

Knitting History of Clothing Material

Objects Around us

Properties of Materials

Solubility

Properties of Materials

Solubility

Methods of Separation

Hand Picking, Winnowing and Sieving Threshing Sedimentation, Decantation and Filtration Evaporation Use of more than one method of separation Can water dissolve any amount of a substance? Summary

Hand Picking, Winnowing and Sieving Threshing Sedimentation, Decantation and Filtration Evaporation Use of more than one method of separation Can water dissolve any amount of a substance? Summary

Can All Changes Always Be Reversed?

Could There be Other Ways to Bring a Change?

Could There be Other Ways to Bring a Change?

Herbs, Shrubs and Trees

Stem

Leaf

Root

Flower

Stem

Leaf

Root

Flower

Human Body and its Movements

Ball and socket joints Pivotal Joint Hinge joints Fixed joints Gait of Animals

Earthworm Snail Cockroach Birds Fish How do snakes move?

Ball and socket joints Pivotal Joint Hinge joints Fixed joints Gait of Animals

Earthworm Snail Cockroach Birds Fish How do snakes move?

Habitat and Adaptation

A Journey Through Different Habitats

Deserts Mountain regions Some Aquatic Habitats oceans Ponds and lakes Do all living things need food Do all living things show growth Do all living things respire Do all living things respond to stimuli Living organisms and excretion Do all living things reproduce their own kind Do all living things move What then is life Characteristics of the Living Beings

A Journey Through Different Habitats

Deserts Mountain regions Some Aquatic Habitats oceans Ponds and lakes Do all living things need food Do all living things show growth Do all living things respire Do all living things respond to stimuli Living organisms and excretion Do all living things reproduce their own kind Do all living things move What then is life Characteristics of the Living Beings

Story of Transport

Some measurements

Standard units of measurements

Correct measurement of length

Measuring the Length of a Curved Line

Moving Things Around us

Types of Motion

Some measurements

Standard units of measurements

Correct measurement of length

Measuring the Length of a Curved Line

Moving Things Around us

Types of Motion

Transparent, Opaque and Translucent objects

What exactly are Shadows?

A Pinhole Camera

Mirrors and Reflections

What exactly are Shadows?

A Pinhole Camera

Mirrors and Reflections

Electric Cell

A Bulb connected to an electric cell

An Electric Circuit

Electric Switch

Electric conductors and insulators

A Bulb connected to an electric cell

An Electric Circuit

Electric Switch

Electric conductors and insulators

How Magnets Were Discovered

Magnetic and Non-magnetic materials

Poles of Magnet

Finding Directions

Make your own Magnet

Attraction and Repulsion between Magnets

A Few Cautions

Magnetic and Non-magnetic materials

Poles of Magnet

Finding Directions

Make your own Magnet

Attraction and Repulsion between Magnets

A Few Cautions

How much water do we use?

Where do we get water from?

Water cycle

Back to the oceans

What if it Rains heavily?

What happens if it does not rain for a long period?

How can we save Water?

Rainwater Harvesting

Where do we get water from?

Water cycle

Back to the oceans

What if it Rains heavily?

What happens if it does not rain for a long period?

How can we save Water?

Rainwater Harvesting

Is Air present everywhere around us?

What is Air made up of ?

How does oxygen become available to animals and plants living in water and soil?

How is the Oxygen in the Atmosphere Replaced?

What is Air made up of ?

How does oxygen become available to animals and plants living in water and soil?

How is the Oxygen in the Atmosphere Replaced?

Dealing with garbage

Vermicomposting

Recycling of paper

Plastics ? boon or a curse?

Vermicomposting

Recycling of paper

Plastics ? boon or a curse?

Articles

Definite Article

Indefinite Article

Rules Using the

Definite Article

Indefinite Article

Rules Using the

Nouns

Singular and plural nouns

Singular and plural nouns

Pronouns

More on Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

Demonstrative Pronouns

PossessivePronouns

Reflexive Pronouns

Indefinite Pronouns

More on Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

Demonstrative Pronouns

PossessivePronouns

Reflexive Pronouns

Indefinite Pronouns

Verbs

Kinds of verbs

Transitive verbs

Intransitive verbs

Kinds of verbs

Transitive verbs

Intransitive verbs

Introduction

Present tenses

Present tense aspects

Simple present tense

Present Continuous

Present perfect tense

Present tenses

Present tense aspects

Simple present tense

Present Continuous

Present perfect tense

Simple past tense

Past tense aspects

Simple past and present perfect tense

Past Perfect

Past tense aspects

Simple past and present perfect tense

Past Perfect

Futurity in English

Future tense aspects

More on future tense

Using will and shall

Future tense aspects

More on future tense

Using will and shall

Definition

Types of Adjectives

As Attributive and Predicative

Degrees

Adjectives Table1

Adjectives Table 2

Adjectives Table 3

Comparative form with To

Comparative into Positive

Superlative into Positive

Adjectives from Noun and verb

Conversation 1

Conversation 2

Special Adjectives

Examples

Types of Adjectives

As Attributive and Predicative

Degrees

Adjectives Table1

Adjectives Table 2

Adjectives Table 3

Comparative form with To

Comparative into Positive

Superlative into Positive

Adjectives from Noun and verb

Conversation 1

Conversation 2

Special Adjectives

Examples

Introduction

Kinds of adverbs

Examples

Kinds of adverbs

Examples

Introduction

Subject, Predicate,Object

what is an object?

Examples of objects

Examples of subject and predicates 1

Examples of subject and predicate 2

Subject, Predicate,Object

what is an object?

Examples of objects

Examples of subject and predicates 1

Examples of subject and predicate 2

Introduction

Objects of preposition 1

Objects of preposition 2

Prepositions with adjectives

Prepositions with forms of transport

Place and direction

Place and time

Examples

Objects of preposition 1

Objects of preposition 2

Prepositions with adjectives

Prepositions with forms of transport

Place and direction

Place and time

Examples

Conjunctions

Although

As

Because

Despite

Inspite of

But

Neither nor

SO

Unless

While

Yet

Although

As

Because

Despite

Inspite of

But

Neither nor

SO

Unless

While

Yet

Introduction

Present tenses

Present tense aspects

Simple present tense

Present Continuous

Present perfect tense

Present tenses

Present tense aspects

Simple present tense

Present Continuous

Present perfect tense

Past tense aspects

Past perfect

Simple past and present perfect tense

Past perfect

Simple past and present perfect tense

Futurity in English

Future tense aspects

More on future tense

Using will and shall

Future tense aspects

More on future tense

Using will and shall

Introduction

Kinds of adverbs

Examples

Kinds of adverbs

Examples

Definition

Types of Adjectives

As Attributive and Predicative

Degrees

Adjectives Table1

Adjectives Table 2

Adjectives Table 3

Comparative form with To

Comparative into Positive

Superlative into Positive

Adjectives from Noun and verb

Conversation 1

Conversation 2

Special Adjectives

Examples

Types of Adjectives

As Attributive and Predicative

Degrees

Adjectives Table1

Adjectives Table 2

Adjectives Table 3

Comparative form with To

Comparative into Positive

Superlative into Positive

Adjectives from Noun and verb

Conversation 1

Conversation 2

Special Adjectives

Examples

Introduction

Subject, Predicate,Object

what is an object?

Examples of objects

Examples of subject and predicate 1

Examples of subject and predicate 2

Subject, Predicate,Object

what is an object?

Examples of objects

Examples of subject and predicate 1

Examples of subject and predicate 2

Introduction

Active & Passive Voice

Example

Active & Passive Voice

Example

Introduction

Question tags

Seldom, Rarely etc

Question tags

Seldom, Rarely etc

Introduction

Reporting commands

Reporting questions

Reporting statements

Reporting commands

Reporting questions

Reporting statements

Pronouns introduction

More on pronouns

Personal pronouns

Demonstrative Pronouns

Possessive Pronouns

Reflexive Pronouns

Indefinite Pronouns

More on pronouns

Personal pronouns

Demonstrative Pronouns

Possessive Pronouns

Reflexive Pronouns

Indefinite Pronouns

Basic forms of Be

'Be' used with Will, May, Can etc

'Be' used with Will, May, Can etc

Positive, Negative and Question Modes

Introduction

Objects of preposition 1

Objects of preposition 2

Prepositions with adjectives

Prepositions with forms of transport

Place and direction

Place and time

Examples

Objects of preposition 1

Objects of preposition 2

Prepositions with adjectives

Prepositions with forms of transport

Place and direction

Place and time

Examples

Although

As

Because

Despite

Inspite of

But

neither nor

SO

Unless

While

yet

Common conjunctions

As

Because

Despite

Inspite of

But

neither nor

SO

Unless

While

yet

Common conjunctions

Mode of Nutrition in Plants

Photosynthesis ? Food making process in Plants

Other modes of Nutrition in Plants

Saprotrophs

How Nutrients are Replenished in the Soil

Summary

Photosynthesis ? Food making process in Plants

Other modes of Nutrition in Plants

Saprotrophs

How Nutrients are Replenished in the Soil

Summary

Different Ways of Taking Food

Digestion in Humans

The Mouth and Buccal Cavity The foodpipe/oesophagus The Stomach The Small Intestine Absorption in the Small Intestine Large Intestine Digestion in Grass-eating Animals

Feeding and Digestion in Amoeba

Digestion in Humans

The Mouth and Buccal Cavity The foodpipe/oesophagus The Stomach The Small Intestine Absorption in the Small Intestine Large Intestine Digestion in Grass-eating Animals

Feeding and Digestion in Amoeba

Wool

Animals that yield Wool From Fibres to Wool Silk

Animals that yield Wool From Fibres to Wool Silk

Hot and Cold

Measuring Temperature

Laboratory Thermometer

Transfer Of Heat

Summary

Measuring Temperature

Laboratory Thermometer

Transfer Of Heat

Summary

Acids and Bases

Natural Indicators Around Us

Neutralisation

Neutralisations in Everyday Life

Summary

Natural Indicators Around Us

Neutralisation

Neutralisations in Everyday Life

Summary

Physical Changes

Chemical Changes

Rusting of Iron

Crystallisation

Chemical Changes

Rusting of Iron

Crystallisation

Weather

Climate

Climate and Adaptation

The Tropical Rainforests

Climate

Climate and Adaptation

The Tropical Rainforests

Air Exerts Pressure

High Speed Winds are Accompanied by Reduced Air Pressure

Air Expands onHeating

Wind Currents are Generated due to Uneven Heating on the

Thunderstorms and Cyclones

Summary

High Speed Winds are Accompanied by Reduced Air Pressure

Air Expands onHeating

Wind Currents are Generated due to Uneven Heating on the

Thunderstorms and Cyclones

Summary

Soil Teeming with life

Soil Profile

Soil Types

Properties of Soil

Absorption of water by Soil

Soil and Crops

Summary

Soil Profile

Soil Types

Properties of Soil

Absorption of water by Soil

Soil and Crops

Summary

Why do We Respire?

Breathing

How do We Breathe?

What do We Breathe out?

Breathing in other Animals

Breathing under Water

Do plants also respire?

Breathing

How do We Breathe?

What do We Breathe out?

Breathing in other Animals

Breathing under Water

Do plants also respire?

Circulatory system

Blood Blood vessels Heart Heartbeat Excretion In Animals

Excretory System in Humans Transport of Substances in Plants

Summary

Blood Blood vessels Heart Heartbeat Excretion In Animals

Excretory System in Humans Transport of Substances in Plants

Summary

Modes of reproduction

Asexual Reproduction Vegetative propagation Budding Fragmentation Spore formation Sexual Reproduction

Pollination Fertilisation Fruits and Seed formation

Seed Dispersal

Asexual Reproduction Vegetative propagation Budding Fragmentation Spore formation Sexual Reproduction

Pollination Fertilisation Fruits and Seed formation

Seed Dispersal

Slow or Fast

Speed

Measurement of Time

Measuring Speed

Distance-Time Graph

Speed

Measurement of Time

Measuring Speed

Distance-Time Graph

Symbols of Electric Components

Heating Effect of Electric Current

Magnetic Effect of Electric Current

Electromagnet

Electric Bell

Heating Effect of Electric Current

Magnetic Effect of Electric Current

Electromagnet

Electric Bell

Light Travels Along a Straight Line

Reflection of Light

Playing With Spherical Mirrors

Images formed by Lenses

Sunlight White or Coloured

Reflection of Light

Playing With Spherical Mirrors

Images formed by Lenses

Sunlight White or Coloured

How much Water is available

Forms of water

Groundwater as an important source of water

Depletion of Water Table

Increasing Population, industries and Agricultural activities Distribution of Water

Water Management

What Role you can Play

Effect of Water Scarcity on Plants

Forms of water

Groundwater as an important source of water

Depletion of Water Table

Increasing Population, industries and Agricultural activities Distribution of Water

Water Management

What Role you can Play

Effect of Water Scarcity on Plants

Forest

Conservation of forest

Conservation of forest

Water, our lifeline

What is Sewage?

Water freshens up an eventful journey

Wastewater Treatment Plant (wwtp)

Better house keeping practices

What is Sewage?

Water freshens up an eventful journey

Wastewater Treatment Plant (wwtp)

Better house keeping practices

Introduction

Properties of Addition and Subtraction of Integers

Closure under Addition and Subtraction Commutative Property Associative Property Additive Identity Multiplication of Integers

Multiplication of a Positive and a Negative Integer Multiplication of two Negative Integers Properties of Multiplication of Integers

Closure and Commutative of Multiplication Multiplication by Zero Associativity for Multiplication Distributive Property Division of Integers

Properties of Division of Integers

Summary

Properties of Addition and Subtraction of Integers

Closure under Addition and Subtraction Commutative Property Associative Property Additive Identity Multiplication of Integers

Multiplication of a Positive and a Negative Integer Multiplication of two Negative Integers Properties of Multiplication of Integers

Closure and Commutative of Multiplication Multiplication by Zero Associativity for Multiplication Distributive Property Division of Integers

Properties of Division of Integers

Summary

Introduction

How well have you learnt about Fractions?

Multiplication of Fractions

Multiplication of a Fraction by a Whole Number Multiplication of a Fraction by a Fraction Division of Fractions

Division of Whole Number by a Fraction Division of a Fraction by a Whole Number Division of a Fraction by Another Fraction How Well have you learnt about Decimal Numbers

Multiplication of Decimal Numbers

Multiplication of Decimal Numbers by 10, 100 and 1000 Division of Decimal Numbers

Division by 10, 100 and 1000 Division of a Decimal Number by a Whole Number Division of a Decimal Number by another Decimal Number Summary

How well have you learnt about Fractions?

Multiplication of Fractions

Multiplication of a Fraction by a Whole Number Multiplication of a Fraction by a Fraction Division of Fractions

Division of Whole Number by a Fraction Division of a Fraction by a Whole Number Division of a Fraction by Another Fraction How Well have you learnt about Decimal Numbers

Multiplication of Decimal Numbers

Multiplication of Decimal Numbers by 10, 100 and 1000 Division of Decimal Numbers

Division by 10, 100 and 1000 Division of a Decimal Number by a Whole Number Division of a Decimal Number by another Decimal Number Summary

Introduction

Collecting Data

Organisation of Data

Representative Values

Arithmetic mean

Range Mode

Median

Use of Bar Graphs with a Different Purpose

Chance and Probability

Summary

Collecting Data

Organisation of Data

Representative Values

Arithmetic mean

Range Mode

Median

Use of Bar Graphs with a Different Purpose

Chance and Probability

Summary

A Mind-reading Game!

Setting up of an Equation

What Equation is?

Solving an Equation More equations

Applications of Simple Equations to Practical Situations

Summary

Setting up of an Equation

What Equation is?

Solving an Equation More equations

Applications of Simple Equations to Practical Situations

Summary

Introduction

Related Angles

Complementary Angles Supplementary Angles Adjacent Angles Vertically Opposite Angles Pairs of lines

Intersecting Lines Transversal Angles made by a Transversal Transversal of Parallel Lines Checking for Parallel lines

Summary

Related Angles

Complementary Angles Supplementary Angles Adjacent Angles Vertically Opposite Angles Pairs of lines

Intersecting Lines Transversal Angles made by a Transversal Transversal of Parallel Lines Checking for Parallel lines

Summary

Introduction

Medians of a Triangle

Altitudes of a Triangle

Exterior angle of a Triangle and its property

Angle Sum Property Of a Triangle

Two Special Triangles : Equilateral and Isosceles

Sum of the Lengths of two Sides of a Triangle

Right-angled Triangles and Pythagoras Property

Summary

Medians of a Triangle

Altitudes of a Triangle

Exterior angle of a Triangle and its property

Angle Sum Property Of a Triangle

Two Special Triangles : Equilateral and Isosceles

Sum of the Lengths of two Sides of a Triangle

Right-angled Triangles and Pythagoras Property

Summary

Introduction

Congruence of Plane Figures

Congruence of Triangles

Criteria for Congruence of Triangles

SSS Game SAS Game ASA Game Congruence among Right-angled Triangles

Summary

Congruence of Plane Figures

Congruence of Triangles

Criteria for Congruence of Triangles

SSS Game SAS Game ASA Game Congruence among Right-angled Triangles

Summary

Introduction

Equivalent Ratios

Percentage another way of Comparing Quantities

Meaning of Percentage Converting Percentages to Fractions, Decimals and Numbers Converting Decimals to Percentage Converting Fractions, Decimals and Numbers into Percentage Applications of Percentage Use of Percentages

Increase or Decrease as Per Cent Prices related to an Item or Buying and Selling

Charge given on Borrowed Money or Simple Interest

Interest for Multiple Years Summary

Equivalent Ratios

Percentage another way of Comparing Quantities

Meaning of Percentage Converting Percentages to Fractions, Decimals and Numbers Converting Decimals to Percentage Converting Fractions, Decimals and Numbers into Percentage Applications of Percentage Use of Percentages

Increase or Decrease as Per Cent Prices related to an Item or Buying and Selling

Charge given on Borrowed Money or Simple Interest

Interest for Multiple Years Summary

Introduction

What are Rational Numbers?

Positive and Negative Rational Numbers

Rational Numbers in Standard Form

Comparison of Rational Numbers

Rational Numbers between two Rational Numbers

Operations on Rational Numbers

Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Summary

What are Rational Numbers?

Positive and Negative Rational Numbers

Rational Numbers in Standard Form

Comparison of Rational Numbers

Rational Numbers between two Rational Numbers

Operations on Rational Numbers

Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Summary

Introduction

Construction of a line Parallel to a given line, through

Construction of Triangles

Constructing a Triangle when the Lengths of its Three Si

Constructing a Triangle when the lengths of two sides an

Constructing a triangle when the measures of two of its

Constructing a right-angled triangle when the length of

Summary

Construction of a line Parallel to a given line, through

Construction of Triangles

Constructing a Triangle when the Lengths of its Three Si

Constructing a Triangle when the lengths of two sides an

Constructing a triangle when the measures of two of its

Constructing a right-angled triangle when the length of

Summary

Introduction

Squares and Rectangles

Area of a Parallelogram

Area of a Triangle

Circles

Circumference of a Circle Area of Circle Conversion of Units

Applications

Summary

Squares and Rectangles

Area of a Parallelogram

Area of a Triangle

Circles

Circumference of a Circle Area of Circle Conversion of Units

Applications

Summary

Introduction

How are expressions formed

Terms of an expression

Like and Unlike terms

Monomials, Binomials, Trinomials and Polynomials

Addition and Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions

Finding the Value of an expression

Using Algebraic Expressions ? formulas and rules

Summary

How are expressions formed

Terms of an expression

Like and Unlike terms

Monomials, Binomials, Trinomials and Polynomials

Addition and Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions

Finding the Value of an expression

Using Algebraic Expressions ? formulas and rules

Summary

Introduction

Exponents

Laws of exponents

Multiplying Powers with the Same Base Dividing Powers with the Same Base Taking Power of a Power Multiplying Powers with the Same Exponents Dividing Powers with the Same Exponents Numbers with exponent zero Miscellaneous Examples using the Laws of Exponents

Expressing Large Numbers in the Standard Form

Summary

Exponents

Laws of exponents

Multiplying Powers with the Same Base Dividing Powers with the Same Base Taking Power of a Power Multiplying Powers with the Same Exponents Dividing Powers with the Same Exponents Numbers with exponent zero Miscellaneous Examples using the Laws of Exponents

Expressing Large Numbers in the Standard Form

Summary

Introduction

Lines of symmetry for Regular Polygon

Rotational Symmetry

Line symmetry and Rotational symmetry

Summary

Lines of symmetry for Regular Polygon

Rotational Symmetry

Line symmetry and Rotational symmetry

Summary

Introduction: Plane Figures and Solid Shapes

Faces, Edges and Vertices

Nets for building 3-D shapes

Drawing solids on a flat surface

Viewing Different Sections of a Solid

One Way to View an Object is by Cutting or Slicing Another Way is by Shadow Play A Third Way is by Looking at it from Certain Angles to Get Different Views Summary

Faces, Edges and Vertices

Nets for building 3-D shapes

Drawing solids on a flat surface

Viewing Different Sections of a Solid

One Way to View an Object is by Cutting or Slicing Another Way is by Shadow Play A Third Way is by Looking at it from Certain Angles to Get Different Views Summary

Introduction

Properties of Rational Numbers

Representation of Rational Numbers on the Number Line

Rational Numbers between Two Rational Numbers

Summary

Properties of Rational Numbers

Representation of Rational Numbers on the Number Line

Rational Numbers between Two Rational Numbers

Summary

Introduction

Solving Equations which have Linear Expressions on one Side

Some Applications

Solving Equations having the Variable on both Sides

Some More Applications

Reducing Equations to Simpler Form

Summary

Solving Equations which have Linear Expressions on one Side

Some Applications

Solving Equations having the Variable on both Sides

Some More Applications

Reducing Equations to Simpler Form

Summary

Introduction

Polygons

Classification of polygons

Diagonals

Regular and irregular polygons

Angle sum property

Kinds of Quadrilaterals

Trapezium

Kite

Parallelogram

Diagonals of a parallelogram

Some Special Parallelograms

Rhombus

A rectangle

A square

Polygons

Classification of polygons

Diagonals

Regular and irregular polygons

Angle sum property

Kinds of Quadrilaterals

Trapezium

Kite

Parallelogram

Diagonals of a parallelogram

Some Special Parallelograms

Rhombus

A rectangle

A square

Introduction

Constructing a Quadrilateral

When the Lengths of Four Sides and a Diagonal are given

When Two Diagonals and Three Sides are given

When Two Adjacent sides and Three Angles are known

When three sides and two included angles are given

** Some Special Cases
**

Summary

Constructing a Quadrilateral

When the Lengths of Four Sides and a Diagonal are given

When Two Diagonals and Three Sides are given

When Two Adjacent sides and Three Angles are known

When three sides and two included angles are given

Summary

Looking for Information

Organising Data

Grouping Data

Bars with a difference Circle Graph or Pie Chart

Chance and Probability

Summary

Organising Data

Grouping Data

Bars with a difference Circle Graph or Pie Chart

Chance and Probability

Summary

Introduction

Finding the Square of a Number

Square Roots

Finding square roots Finding square root through repeated subtraction

Finding square root through prime factorisation

Finding square root by division method

** Summary**

Finding the Square of a Number

Square Roots

Finding square roots Finding square root through repeated subtraction

Finding square root through prime factorisation

Finding square root by division method

Introduction

Cubes

** Smallest multiple that is a perfect cube
**

Cube Roots

** Cube root through prime factorisation method
**

Summary

Cubes

Recalling Ratios and Percentages

Finding the Increase or Decrease Per cent

Finding Discounts

Prices Related to Buying and Selling (Profit and Loss)

Finding cost price/selling price, profit percentage/loss percentage** Sales Tax/Value Added Tax
**

Compound Interest

Rate Compounded Annually or Half Yearly(Semi Annually)

Summary

Introduction

Finding the Increase or Decrease Per cent

Finding Discounts

Prices Related to Buying and Selling (Profit and Loss)

Finding cost price/selling price, profit percentage/loss percentage

Compound Interest

Rate Compounded Annually or Half Yearly(Semi Annually)

Summary

Introduction

What are Expressions

Terms, Factors and Coefficients

Monomials, Binomials and Polynomials

Like and Unlike Terms

Addition and Substraction of Algebraic Expressions

Multiplying a Monomial by a Polynomial

Multiplying a monomial by a Binomial** Multiplying a Polynomial by a Polynomial
**

Multiplying a binomial by a Trinomial

** What is an Identity
**

Standard Identities

Applying Identities

Summary

Introduction

Terms, Factors and Coefficients

Monomials, Binomials and Polynomials

Like and Unlike Terms

Addition and Substraction of Algebraic Expressions

Multiplying a Monomial by a Polynomial

Multiplying a monomial by a Binomial

Standard Identities

Applying Identities

Summary

Introduction

Introduction

Views of 3D-Shapes

Mapping Space Around Us

Faces, Edges and Vertices

Summary

Views of 3D-Shapes

Mapping Space Around Us

Faces, Edges and Vertices

Summary

Introduction

Let us Recall

Area of Trapezium

Area of a General Quadrilateral

Solid Shapes

Surface Area of Cube, Cuboid and Cylinder

Volume of Cube, Cuboid and Cylinder

Volume and Capacity

Summary

Let us Recall

Area of Trapezium

Area of a General Quadrilateral

Solid Shapes

Surface Area of Cube, Cuboid and Cylinder

Volume of Cube, Cuboid and Cylinder

Volume and Capacity

Summary

Introduction

Powers with Negative Exponents

Laws of Exponents

Use of Exponents to Express Small Numbers in Standard Fo

Comparing very large and very small numbers

Powers with Negative Exponents

Laws of Exponents

Use of Exponents to Express Small Numbers in Standard Fo

Comparing very large and very small numbers

Introduction

Direct Proportion

Inverse Proportion

Summary

Direct Proportion

Inverse Proportion

Summary

Introduction

What is Factorisation?

Method of common factors Factorisation by regrouping terms Factorisation using Identities Factors of the form ( x + a) ( x + b Division of Algebraic Expressions

Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of Algebraic Expressions continued(Polynomial

Summary

What is Factorisation?

Method of common factors Factorisation by regrouping terms Factorisation using Identities Factors of the form ( x + a) ( x + b Division of Algebraic Expressions

Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of Algebraic Expressions continued(Polynomial

Summary

Introduction

A Bar Graph A Pie Graph (or a circle-graph) A Line Graph Linear Graphs

Coordinates Some Applications

Summary

A Bar Graph A Pie Graph (or a circle-graph) A Line Graph Linear Graphs

Coordinates Some Applications

Summary

Introduction

Numbers in General Form

Games with Numbers

Letters for Digits

Tests of Divisibility

Summary

Numbers in General Form

Games with Numbers

Letters for Digits

Tests of Divisibility

Summary

Force â€“ A Push or a Pull

Forces are due to an Interaction

Exploring Forces

A Force can Change the State of Motion

Force can Change the Shape of an Object

Contact Forces

Muscular Force Friction Non-contact Forces

Pressure

Pressure exerted by Liquids and Gases

Atmospheric Pressure

Forces are due to an Interaction

Exploring Forces

A Force can Change the State of Motion

Force can Change the Shape of an Object

Contact Forces

Muscular Force Friction Non-contact Forces

Pressure

Pressure exerted by Liquids and Gases

Atmospheric Pressure

Force of Friction

Factors affecting Friction

Friction : A Necessary Evil

Increasing and Reducing Friction

Wheels Reduce Friction

Fluid Friction

Factors affecting Friction

Friction : A Necessary Evil

Increasing and Reducing Friction

Wheels Reduce Friction

Fluid Friction

Sound is Produced by a Vibrating Body

Sound Produced by Humans

Sound Needs a Medium for Propagation

We hear Sound through Our Ears

Amplitude, Time Period And Frequency Of a Vibration

Audible and Inaudible Sounds

Noise and Music

Noise Pollution

Sound Produced by Humans

Sound Needs a Medium for Propagation

We hear Sound through Our Ears

Amplitude, Time Period And Frequency Of a Vibration

Audible and Inaudible Sounds

Noise and Music

Noise Pollution

Do Liquids Conduct Electricity?

Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Electroplating

Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Electroplating

Lightning

Charging by rubbing

Types of Charges and their Interaction

Lightning Safety

Lightning Conductors Earthquakes

Charging by rubbing

Types of Charges and their Interaction

Lightning Safety

Lightning Conductors Earthquakes

What makes Things Visible

Laws of Reflection

Regular and Diffused Reflection

Multiple Images

Sunlight and White or Coloured

What is inside Our Eyes?

Care of Eyes

What is a Braille System?

Laws of Reflection

Regular and Diffused Reflection

Multiple Images

Sunlight and White or Coloured

What is inside Our Eyes?

Care of Eyes

What is a Braille System?

The Moon

The Moons Surface The Stars

Constellations

The Solar System

The Planets The Sun Mercury (Budh) Venus (Shukra) The Earth Mars (Mangal) Jupiter (Brihaspati) Saturn (Shani) Uranus Neptune Some other members of Solar system

Asteroids Comets Meteors and Meteorites Artificial Satellites

The Moons Surface The Stars

Constellations

The Solar System

The Planets The Sun Mercury (Budh) Venus (Shukra) The Earth Mars (Mangal) Jupiter (Brihaspati) Saturn (Shani) Uranus Neptune Some other members of Solar system

Asteroids Comets Meteors and Meteorites Artificial Satellites

What are Synthetic Fibres?

Types of Synthetic Fibres

Rayon Nylon Polyester Acrylic Characteristics of Synthetic Fibres

Plastics, Plastics as Materials of Choice

Plastics and the Environment

Types of Synthetic Fibres

Rayon Nylon Polyester Acrylic Characteristics of Synthetic Fibres

Plastics, Plastics as Materials of Choice

Plastics and the Environment

Physical Properties of Metals and Non-metals

Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-metals

Reaction with Oxygen Reaction with Water Reactions with Acids Reactions with Bases Displacement Reactions Uses of Metals and Nonmetals

Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-metals

Reaction with Oxygen Reaction with Water Reactions with Acids Reactions with Bases Displacement Reactions Uses of Metals and Nonmetals

Coal

Story of Coal Coke Coal tar Coal gas Petroleum and refining of petroleum

Natural Gas

Some Natural Resources are Limited

Story of Coal Coke Coal tar Coal gas Petroleum and refining of petroleum

Natural Gas

Some Natural Resources are Limited

What is Combustion?

How do We Control Fire?

Types of Combustion

Flame

Structure of a Flame

What is a Fuel?

Burning of Fuels Leads to Harmful Products Fuel Efficiency

How do We Control Fire?

Types of Combustion

Flame

Structure of a Flame

What is a Fuel?

Burning of Fuels Leads to Harmful Products Fuel Efficiency

Air Pollution

How does Air Get Polluted?

Case study :The Taj Mahal

Greenhouse Effect

What can be Done?

Water Pollution

How does Water Get Polluted?

What is Potable Water and How is Water Purified ?

How does Air Get Polluted?

Case study :The Taj Mahal

Greenhouse Effect

What can be Done?

Water Pollution

How does Water Get Polluted?

What is Potable Water and How is Water Purified ?

Agricultural Practices

Kharif Crops and Rabi crops Basic Practices of Crop Production

Preparation of Soil

Sowing

Adding Manure and Fertilisers

Irrigation

Protection from Weeds

Harvesting

Storage

Food from Animals

Kharif Crops and Rabi crops Basic Practices of Crop Production

Preparation of Soil

Sowing

Adding Manure and Fertilisers

Irrigation

Protection from Weeds

Harvesting

Storage

Food from Animals

Microorganisms

Where do Microorganisms Live?

Microorganisms and Us- Commercial and medicinal use

vaccine Harmful Microorganisms

Food Poisoning Food Preservation

Nitrogen Fixation

Nitrogen cycle

Where do Microorganisms Live?

Microorganisms and Us- Commercial and medicinal use

vaccine Harmful Microorganisms

Food Poisoning Food Preservation

Nitrogen Fixation

Nitrogen cycle

Deforestation and Its Causes

Consequences of Deforestation

Conservation of Forest and Wildlife

Biosphere Reserve

Flora and Fauna

Endemic Species

Wildlife Sanctuary

National Park

Red Data Book

Migration

Reforestation and Recycling of Paper

Consequences of Deforestation

Conservation of Forest and Wildlife

Biosphere Reserve

Flora and Fauna

Endemic Species

Wildlife Sanctuary

National Park

Red Data Book

Migration

Reforestation and Recycling of Paper

Discovery of the Cell

The Cell

Organisms show Variety in Cell Number, Shape and Size

Cell Structure and Function

Parts of the Cell

Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells

The Cell

Organisms show Variety in Cell Number, Shape and Size

Cell Structure and Function

Parts of the Cell

Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells

Modes of Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

Male Reproductive Organs Female Reproductive Organs Fertilization Development of Embryo Viviparous and Oviparous Animals Young Ones to Adults Asexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

Male Reproductive Organs Female Reproductive Organs Fertilization Development of Embryo Viviparous and Oviparous Animals Young Ones to Adults Asexual Reproduction

Adolescence and Puberty

Changes at Puberty

Increase in Height Change in Body Shape Voice Change Increased Activity of Sweat and Sebaceous Glands Development of Sex Organs Reaching Mental, Intellectual and Emotional Maturity Secondary Sexual Characters

Role of Hormones in Initiating Reproductive Function

Reproductive Phase of Life in Humans

How is the Sex of the Baby determined?

Hormones other than Sex Hormones

Role of Hormones in completing the Life History of Insec

Reproductive Health

Nutritional Needs of the Adolescents Personal Hygiene Physical exercise Say NO to Drugs

Changes at Puberty

Increase in Height Change in Body Shape Voice Change Increased Activity of Sweat and Sebaceous Glands Development of Sex Organs Reaching Mental, Intellectual and Emotional Maturity Secondary Sexual Characters

Role of Hormones in Initiating Reproductive Function

Reproductive Phase of Life in Humans

How is the Sex of the Baby determined?

Hormones other than Sex Hormones

Role of Hormones in completing the Life History of Insec

Reproductive Health

Nutritional Needs of the Adolescents Personal Hygiene Physical exercise Say NO to Drugs

Introduction

Irrational Numbers

Real Numbers and their Decimal Expansions

Representing Real numbers on the Number Line

Operations and Real Numbers

Laws of Exponents for Real Numbers

Summary

Irrational Numbers

Real Numbers and their Decimal Expansions

Representing Real numbers on the Number Line

Operations and Real Numbers

Laws of Exponents for Real Numbers

Summary

Introduction

Polynomials in One Variable

Zeroes of a Polynomial

Remainder Theorem

Factorisation of Polynomials

Algebraic Identities

Summary

Polynomials in One Variable

Zeroes of a Polynomial

Remainder Theorem

Factorisation of Polynomials

Algebraic Identities

Summary

Introduction

Cartesian System

Plotting a Point in the Plane if its Coordinates are Given

Summary

Cartesian System

Plotting a Point in the Plane if its Coordinates are Given

Summary

Introduction

Linear Equations

Solution of a Linear Equation

Graph of a Linear Equation in Two Variables

Equations of Lines Parallel to the x-axis and y-axis

Summary

Linear Equations

Solution of a Linear Equation

Graph of a Linear Equation in Two Variables

Equations of Lines Parallel to the x-axis and y-axis

Summary

Introduction

Euclids Definitions, Axioms and Postulates

Equivalent Versions of Euclids Fifth Postulate

Summary

Euclids Definitions, Axioms and Postulates

Equivalent Versions of Euclids Fifth Postulate

Summary

Introduction

Basic Terms and Definitions

Intersecting Lines and Non-intersecting Lines

Pairs of Angles

Axiom : If a Ray stands on a Line, then the Sum of two Adjacent Angles so formed is 180 Axiom: If the Sum of two Adjacent Angles is 180 degree Theorem : If Two Lines Intersect Each Other, then the Vertically Opposite Angles are Equal. Parallel Lines and a Transversal

Axiom : Each Pair of Corresponding Angle is Equal. Axiom : Pair of Corresponding Angle is Equal, then the Two Lines are Parallel to each other. Theorem : Pair of Alternate Interior Angles is Equal. Theorem : Pair of Interior Angles on the same Side of the Transversal is Supplementary. Angle Sum Property of a Triangle

Theorem:The Sum of the Angles of a Triangle is 180 degree Theorem :Exterior Angle so formed is equal to the Sum of the Two Interior Opposite Angles. Summary

Lines Parallel to the Same Line

Basic Terms and Definitions

Intersecting Lines and Non-intersecting Lines

Pairs of Angles

Axiom : If a Ray stands on a Line, then the Sum of two Adjacent Angles so formed is 180 Axiom: If the Sum of two Adjacent Angles is 180 degree Theorem : If Two Lines Intersect Each Other, then the Vertically Opposite Angles are Equal. Parallel Lines and a Transversal

Axiom : Each Pair of Corresponding Angle is Equal. Axiom : Pair of Corresponding Angle is Equal, then the Two Lines are Parallel to each other. Theorem : Pair of Alternate Interior Angles is Equal. Theorem : Pair of Interior Angles on the same Side of the Transversal is Supplementary. Angle Sum Property of a Triangle

Theorem:The Sum of the Angles of a Triangle is 180 degree Theorem :Exterior Angle so formed is equal to the Sum of the Two Interior Opposite Angles. Summary

Lines Parallel to the Same Line

Introduction

Congruence of Triangles

Criteria for Congruence of Triangles

Axiom(7.1) SAS congruence rule:Two Triangles are Congruent if Two Sides and the included Angle of one Triangle are equal to the sides and the included Angle of the other Triangle. Theorem(7.1)::ASA congruence rule : Two Triangles are Congruent if Two Angles and the included Side of one Triangle are Equal to Two Angles and the included Side of other Triangle. Some Properties of a Triangle

Theorem(7.2) : Angles Opposite to Equal Sides of an Isosceles Triangle are Equal. Some More Criteria for Congruence of Triangles.

Theorem (7.4) SSS Congruence rule : If Three Sides of One Triangle are equal to the Three Sides of another Triangle, then the Two Triangles are Congruent. Theorem( 7.5) RHS Congruence Rule : If in Two Right Triangles the Hypotenuse and One Side of one Triangle are equal to the Hypotenuse and One side of the other triangle, then the Two Triangles are Con Inequalities in a Triangle

Summary

Congruence of Triangles

Criteria for Congruence of Triangles

Axiom(7.1) SAS congruence rule:Two Triangles are Congruent if Two Sides and the included Angle of one Triangle are equal to the sides and the included Angle of the other Triangle. Theorem(7.1)::ASA congruence rule : Two Triangles are Congruent if Two Angles and the included Side of one Triangle are Equal to Two Angles and the included Side of other Triangle. Some Properties of a Triangle

Theorem(7.2) : Angles Opposite to Equal Sides of an Isosceles Triangle are Equal. Some More Criteria for Congruence of Triangles.

Theorem (7.4) SSS Congruence rule : If Three Sides of One Triangle are equal to the Three Sides of another Triangle, then the Two Triangles are Congruent. Theorem( 7.5) RHS Congruence Rule : If in Two Right Triangles the Hypotenuse and One Side of one Triangle are equal to the Hypotenuse and One side of the other triangle, then the Two Triangles are Con Inequalities in a Triangle

Summary

Introduction

Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral

Types of Quadrilaterals

Properties of a Parallelogram

Theorem (8.1 ): A Diagonal of a Parallelogram Divides it into Two Congruent Triangles. Theorem( 8.2) : In a Parallelogram, Opposite Sides are Equal. Theorem( 8.4) : In a Parallelogram, Opposite Angles are Equal. Theorem( 8.6) : The Diagonals of a Parallelogram Bisect each other. Another Condition for a Quadrilateral to be a Parallelogram

Theorem (8.8) : A Quadrilateral is a Parallelogram if a Pair of Opposite Sides is Equal and Parallel The Mid-point Theorem

Theorem( 8.9) : The Line Segment joining the Mid-points of Two Sides of a Triangle is Parallel to the Third Side. Theorem( 8.10) : The Line drawn through the Mid-point of One Side of a Triangle,Parallel to another Side Bisects the Third Side. Summary

Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral

Types of Quadrilaterals

Properties of a Parallelogram

Theorem (8.1 ): A Diagonal of a Parallelogram Divides it into Two Congruent Triangles. Theorem( 8.2) : In a Parallelogram, Opposite Sides are Equal. Theorem( 8.4) : In a Parallelogram, Opposite Angles are Equal. Theorem( 8.6) : The Diagonals of a Parallelogram Bisect each other. Another Condition for a Quadrilateral to be a Parallelogram

Theorem (8.8) : A Quadrilateral is a Parallelogram if a Pair of Opposite Sides is Equal and Parallel The Mid-point Theorem

Theorem( 8.9) : The Line Segment joining the Mid-points of Two Sides of a Triangle is Parallel to the Third Side. Theorem( 8.10) : The Line drawn through the Mid-point of One Side of a Triangle,Parallel to another Side Bisects the Third Side. Summary

Introduction

Figures on the Same Base and Between the Same Parallels

Parallelograms on the Same Base and Between the same Parallels

Theorem( 9.1) : Parallelograms on the Same Base and between the Same Parallels are Equal in Area. Theorem( 9.2): Two Triangles on the Same Base and between the Same Parallels are Equal in Area. Triangles on the same Base and between the same Parallels

Summary

Figures on the Same Base and Between the Same Parallels

Parallelograms on the Same Base and Between the same Parallels

Theorem( 9.1) : Parallelograms on the Same Base and between the Same Parallels are Equal in Area. Theorem( 9.2): Two Triangles on the Same Base and between the Same Parallels are Equal in Area. Triangles on the same Base and between the same Parallels

Summary

Introduction

Circles and Its Related Terms: A Review

Angle Subtended by a Chord at a Point

Theorem (10.1) : Equal Chords of a Circle Subtend Equal Angles at the Centre. Theorem (10.2) : If the Angles Subtended by the Chords of a Circle at the Centre are Equal, then the Chords are Equal. Perpendicular from the Centre to a Chord

Theorem( 10.3) : The Perpendicular from the Centre of a Circle to a Chord Bisects the Chord. Circle through Three Points

Theorem( 10.5) : There is One and only One Circle passing through Three given Non-Collinear Points. Equal Chords and Their Distances from the Centre

Theorem (10.6) : Equal Chords of a Circle (or of congruent circles) are Equidistant from the Centre (or centres). Angle Subtended by an Arc of a Circle

Theorem (10.8) : The Angle Subtended by an Arc at the Centre is Double the Angle Aubtended by it at any Point on the Remaining Part of the Circle Theorem (10.9 ) : Angles in the Same Segment of a Circle are Equal. Theorem (10.10 ): If a Line Segment joining Two Points Subtends Equal Angles at Two other Points lying on the Same Side of the Line containing the Line Segment, the Four points lie on a Circle (i.e. t Cyclic Quadrilaterals

Theorem (10.11) : The Sum of Either Pair of Opposite Angles of a Cyclic Quadrilateral is 180?. Theorem (10.12) : If the Sum of a Pair of Opposite Angles of a Quadrilateral is180?, the Quadrilateral is Cyclic. Summary

Circles and Its Related Terms: A Review

Angle Subtended by a Chord at a Point

Theorem (10.1) : Equal Chords of a Circle Subtend Equal Angles at the Centre. Theorem (10.2) : If the Angles Subtended by the Chords of a Circle at the Centre are Equal, then the Chords are Equal. Perpendicular from the Centre to a Chord

Theorem( 10.3) : The Perpendicular from the Centre of a Circle to a Chord Bisects the Chord. Circle through Three Points

Theorem( 10.5) : There is One and only One Circle passing through Three given Non-Collinear Points. Equal Chords and Their Distances from the Centre

Theorem (10.6) : Equal Chords of a Circle (or of congruent circles) are Equidistant from the Centre (or centres). Angle Subtended by an Arc of a Circle

Theorem (10.8) : The Angle Subtended by an Arc at the Centre is Double the Angle Aubtended by it at any Point on the Remaining Part of the Circle Theorem (10.9 ) : Angles in the Same Segment of a Circle are Equal. Theorem (10.10 ): If a Line Segment joining Two Points Subtends Equal Angles at Two other Points lying on the Same Side of the Line containing the Line Segment, the Four points lie on a Circle (i.e. t Cyclic Quadrilaterals

Theorem (10.11) : The Sum of Either Pair of Opposite Angles of a Cyclic Quadrilateral is 180?. Theorem (10.12) : If the Sum of a Pair of Opposite Angles of a Quadrilateral is180?, the Quadrilateral is Cyclic. Summary

Introduction

Basic Constructions

Construction( 11.1 )To Construct the Bisector of a Given Angle. Construction (11.2) To Construct the Perpendicular Bisector of a Given Line Segment. Construction (11.3 )To Construct an Angle of 60 ?at the Initial Point of a Given Ray. Some Constructions of Triangles

Construction( 11.4 )To Construct a Triangle, given its Base, a Base Angle and Sum of other Two Sides. Construction (11.5) To Construct a Triangle given its Base, a Base Angle and the Difference of the other two Sides. Construction 11.6 : To construct a triangle, given its perimeter and its two base Angles Summary

Basic Constructions

Construction( 11.1 )To Construct the Bisector of a Given Angle. Construction (11.2) To Construct the Perpendicular Bisector of a Given Line Segment. Construction (11.3 )To Construct an Angle of 60 ?at the Initial Point of a Given Ray. Some Constructions of Triangles

Construction( 11.4 )To Construct a Triangle, given its Base, a Base Angle and Sum of other Two Sides. Construction (11.5) To Construct a Triangle given its Base, a Base Angle and the Difference of the other two Sides. Construction 11.6 : To construct a triangle, given its perimeter and its two base Angles Summary

Introduction

Area of a Triangle by Herons Formula

Application of Herons Formula in Finding Areas of Quadrilaterals

Summary

Area of a Triangle by Herons Formula

Application of Herons Formula in Finding Areas of Quadrilaterals

Summary

Introduction

Surface Area of a Cuboid and a Cube

Surface Area of a Right Circular Cylinder

Surface Area of a Right Circular Cone

Surface Area of a Sphere

Volume of a Cuboid

Volume of a Cylinder

Volume of a Right Circular Cone

Volume of a Sphere

Summary

Surface Area of a Cuboid and a Cube

Surface Area of a Right Circular Cylinder

Surface Area of a Right Circular Cone

Surface Area of a Sphere

Volume of a Cuboid

Volume of a Cylinder

Volume of a Right Circular Cone

Volume of a Sphere

Summary

Introduction

Collection of Data

Presentation of Data

Graphical Representation of Data

Measures of Central Tendency

Summary

Collection of Data

Presentation of Data

Graphical Representation of Data

Measures of Central Tendency

Summary

Introduction

Probability ? an Experimental Approach

Summary

Probability ? an Experimental Approach

Summary

Describing Motion

Motion along a straight line Uniform motion and non-uniform motion Measuring the Rate of Motion

Speed with Direction Rate of Change of Velocity

Graphical Representation of Motion

Distance-Time graph Velocity-Time graph Equations of Motion by Graphical method

Equation for Velocity-Time Relation Equation for Position-Time Relation Equation for Position-Velocity Relation Uniform Circular Motion

Motion along a straight line Uniform motion and non-uniform motion Measuring the Rate of Motion

Speed with Direction Rate of Change of Velocity

Graphical Representation of Motion

Distance-Time graph Velocity-Time graph Equations of Motion by Graphical method

Equation for Velocity-Time Relation Equation for Position-Time Relation Equation for Position-Velocity Relation Uniform Circular Motion

Balanced and Unbalanced Forces

Newtons First law of Motion

Inertia and Mass

Newtons Second Law of Motion

Mathematical formulation of Second Law of Motion Third Law of Motion

Conservation of Momentum

Newtons First law of Motion

Inertia and Mass

Newtons Second Law of Motion

Mathematical formulation of Second Law of Motion Third Law of Motion

Conservation of Momentum

Gravitation

Universal Law of Gravitation Importance of the Universal Law of Gravitation Free Fall

To calculate the value of g Mass

Weight

Weight of an object on the moon Thrust and Pressure

Pressure in Fluids Buoyancy Why Objects Float or Sink when placed on the Surface of Water? Archimede's Principle

Relative Density

Universal Law of Gravitation Importance of the Universal Law of Gravitation Free Fall

To calculate the value of g Mass

Weight

Weight of an object on the moon Thrust and Pressure

Pressure in Fluids Buoyancy Why Objects Float or Sink when placed on the Surface of Water? Archimede's Principle

Relative Density

Work

Not much "work" in spite of Working Hard Scientific Conception of Work Work Done by a Constant Force Energy

Forms of Energy Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Potential energy of an object at a Height Are Various Energy Forms Interconvertible? Law of Conservation of Energy Rate of Doing Work?

Commercial Unit of Energy

Not much "work" in spite of Working Hard Scientific Conception of Work Work Done by a Constant Force Energy

Forms of Energy Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Potential energy of an object at a Height Are Various Energy Forms Interconvertible? Law of Conservation of Energy Rate of Doing Work?

Commercial Unit of Energy

Production of Sound

Propagation of Sound

Sound needs a Medium to Travel Sound Waves are Longitudinal Waves Characteristics of a Sound Wave Speed of Sound in Different Media Reflection of Sound

Echo Reverberation Uses of Multiple Reflection of Sound Range of Hearing

Applications of Ultrasound

Sonar Structure of Human Ear

Propagation of Sound

Sound needs a Medium to Travel Sound Waves are Longitudinal Waves Characteristics of a Sound Wave Speed of Sound in Different Media Reflection of Sound

Echo Reverberation Uses of Multiple Reflection of Sound Range of Hearing

Applications of Ultrasound

Sonar Structure of Human Ear

Physical Nature of Matter

Matter is made of Particles and How small are these Particles Characteristics of Particles of Matter

Particles of Matter are Continuously Moving Particles of Matter have Space between them Particles of Matter Attract each other State of Matter

States of matter - Solid, Liquid and Gaseous state Can Matter Change its State?

Effect of Change of Temperature Effect of Change of Pressure Evaporation

Factors Affecting Evaporation and Evaporation causes cooling

Matter is made of Particles and How small are these Particles Characteristics of Particles of Matter

Particles of Matter are Continuously Moving Particles of Matter have Space between them Particles of Matter Attract each other State of Matter

States of matter - Solid, Liquid and Gaseous state Can Matter Change its State?

Effect of Change of Temperature Effect of Change of Pressure Evaporation

Factors Affecting Evaporation and Evaporation causes cooling

What is a Mixture?

Types of Mixture What is a Solution?

Concentration of a Solution What is a Suspension? What is a Colloidal Solution? Separating the Components of a Mixture

How can we Separate Cream from Milk? How can we separate a mixture of two Immiscible Liquids? How can we separate a mixture of Salt and Ammonium Chloride? Is the Dye in Black Ink a Single Colour? How can we separate a mixture of two Miscible Liquids? How can we obtain different Gases from Air? How can we obtain Pure Copper Sulphate from an Impure Sample? Physical and Chemical Changes

What are the types of Pure Substances?

Elements Compounds

Types of Mixture What is a Solution?

Concentration of a Solution What is a Suspension? What is a Colloidal Solution? Separating the Components of a Mixture

How can we Separate Cream from Milk? How can we separate a mixture of two Immiscible Liquids? How can we separate a mixture of Salt and Ammonium Chloride? Is the Dye in Black Ink a Single Colour? How can we separate a mixture of two Miscible Liquids? How can we obtain different Gases from Air? How can we obtain Pure Copper Sulphate from an Impure Sample? Physical and Chemical Changes

What are the types of Pure Substances?

Elements Compounds

Laws of chemical combination

Law of Conservation of Mass Law of Constant Proportion What is an Atom?

Modern day symbols of Atoms of different elements and Atomic mass How do Atoms Exist What is a Molecule?

Molecules of Elements and Compounds What is an Ion Writing Chemical Formulae

Formulae of Simple Compouds Molecular mass and Mole Concept

Molecular Mass Formula Unit Mass Mole Concept

Law of Conservation of Mass Law of Constant Proportion What is an Atom?

Modern day symbols of Atoms of different elements and Atomic mass How do Atoms Exist What is a Molecule?

Molecules of Elements and Compounds What is an Ion Writing Chemical Formulae

Formulae of Simple Compouds Molecular mass and Mole Concept

Molecular Mass Formula Unit Mass Mole Concept

Charged Particles in Matter

The Structure of an Atom

Thomson's Model of an Atom Rutherford's Model of Atom Drawbacks of Rutherfords Model of the Atom Bohr's Model of Atom Neutrons How are Electrons Distributed in Different Orbits (Shells)

Valency

Atomic and Mass Number

Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes

The Structure of an Atom

Thomson's Model of an Atom Rutherford's Model of Atom Drawbacks of Rutherfords Model of the Atom Bohr's Model of Atom Neutrons How are Electrons Distributed in Different Orbits (Shells)

Valency

Atomic and Mass Number

Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes

What are living organisms made up of?

What is a Cell Made Up of ? What is the Structural Organisation of a Cell?

Plasma Membrane or Cell Membrane Cell Wall Nucleus Cytoplasam Cell Organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosome Mitochondria Plastids Vacuoles

What is a Cell Made Up of ? What is the Structural Organisation of a Cell?

Plasma Membrane or Cell Membrane Cell Wall Nucleus Cytoplasam Cell Organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosome Mitochondria Plastids Vacuoles

Are plants and animals made of same types of tissues?

Plant Tissues

Meristematic Tissue Permenant Tissue-Simple Permanent Tissue and Complex Permanent Tissue Animal Tissues

Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscular Tissue Nervous Tissue

Plant Tissues

Meristematic Tissue Permenant Tissue-Simple Permanent Tissue and Complex Permanent Tissue Animal Tissues

Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscular Tissue Nervous Tissue

What is the basis of Classification of Organisms

Classification and Evolution

The Hierarchy of Classification-Groups

Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Plantae

Thallophyta Bryophyta Pteridophyta Gymnosperms Angiosperms Animalia

Porifera Coelenterata Platyhelminthes Nematoda Annelida Arthropoda Mollusca Echinodermata Protochordata Vertebrata Pisces Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Nomenclature

Classification and Evolution

The Hierarchy of Classification-Groups

Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Plantae

Thallophyta Bryophyta Pteridophyta Gymnosperms Angiosperms Animalia

Porifera Coelenterata Platyhelminthes Nematoda Annelida Arthropoda Mollusca Echinodermata Protochordata Vertebrata Pisces Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Nomenclature

Health and its Failure

The Significance of Health Personal and Community Issues both matter for Health Distinction between "Healthy" and "Disease free" Diseases and its Causes

What does Disease look like? Acute and Chronic Diseases Chronic diseases and Poor Health Causes of diseases Infectious and Non Infectious Causes Infectious Diseases

Infectious Agents Means of Spread Organ Specific and TissueSpecific Manifestations Principles of Treatment Principles of Prevention

The Significance of Health Personal and Community Issues both matter for Health Distinction between "Healthy" and "Disease free" Diseases and its Causes

What does Disease look like? Acute and Chronic Diseases Chronic diseases and Poor Health Causes of diseases Infectious and Non Infectious Causes Infectious Diseases

Infectious Agents Means of Spread Organ Specific and TissueSpecific Manifestations Principles of Treatment Principles of Prevention

The Breath of life: Air

The Role of the Atmosphere in Climate Control The Movement of Air : Winds Rain Air Pollution Water: A Wonder Liquid

Water Pollution Mineral Riches in the Soil

Biogeochemical Cycles

The Water-Cycle The Nitrogen- Cycle The Carbon Cycle The Green House Effect The Oxygen Cycle Ozone Layer

The Role of the Atmosphere in Climate Control The Movement of Air : Winds Rain Air Pollution Water: A Wonder Liquid

Water Pollution Mineral Riches in the Soil

Biogeochemical Cycles

The Water-Cycle The Nitrogen- Cycle The Carbon Cycle The Green House Effect The Oxygen Cycle Ozone Layer

Improvement in Crop Yields

Crop Variety Improvement Crop Production Management Nutrient Management Irrigation Cropping Patterns Crop Protection Management Animal Husbandry

Cattle Farming Poultry Farming Fish Production Marine Fisheries Inland Fisheries Bee Keeping

Crop Variety Improvement Crop Production Management Nutrient Management Irrigation Cropping Patterns Crop Protection Management Animal Husbandry

Cattle Farming Poultry Farming Fish Production Marine Fisheries Inland Fisheries Bee Keeping

Introduction

Euclids Division Lemma

Theorem for Euclid’s Division Lemma The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

Revisiting Irrational Numbers

Theorem Related to Revisiting Irrational Numbers Revisiting Rational Numbers and Their Decimal Expansions

Theorem Related to Revisiting Rational Numbers and Their Decimal Expansions Summary

Euclids Division Lemma

Theorem for Euclid’s Division Lemma The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

Revisiting Irrational Numbers

Theorem Related to Revisiting Irrational Numbers Revisiting Rational Numbers and Their Decimal Expansions

Theorem Related to Revisiting Rational Numbers and Their Decimal Expansions Summary

Introduction

Geometrical Meaning of the Zeroes of a Polynomial

Relationship between Zeroes and Coefficients of a Polynomia

Division Algorithm for Polynomials

Summary

Geometrical Meaning of the Zeroes of a Polynomial

Relationship between Zeroes and Coefficients of a Polynomia

Division Algorithm for Polynomials

Summary

Introduction

Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables

Graphical Method of Solution of a Pair of Linear Equations

Algebraic Methods of Solving a Pair of Linear Equations

Substitution Method Elimination Method Cross - Multiplication Method Equations Reducible to a Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables

Summary

Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables

Graphical Method of Solution of a Pair of Linear Equations

Algebraic Methods of Solving a Pair of Linear Equations

Substitution Method Elimination Method Cross - Multiplication Method Equations Reducible to a Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables

Summary

Introduction

Quadratic Equations

Solution of a Quadratic Equation by Factorisation

Solution of a Quadratic Equation by Completing the Square

Nature of Roots

Summary

Quadratic Equations

Solution of a Quadratic Equation by Factorisation

Solution of a Quadratic Equation by Completing the Square

Nature of Roots

Summary

Introduction

Arithmetic Progressions

nth Term of an AP

Sum of First n Terms of an AP

Summary

Arithmetic Progressions

nth Term of an AP

Sum of First n Terms of an AP

Summary

Introduction

Similar Figures

Similarity of Triangles

Basic Proportionality Theorem Criteria for Similarity of Triangles

Areas of Similar Triangles

Theorem - The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles Pythagoras Theorem

Pythagoras Theorem Proof for Pythagoras Theorem Converse of Pythagoras Theorem Summary

Similar Figures

Similarity of Triangles

Basic Proportionality Theorem Criteria for Similarity of Triangles

Areas of Similar Triangles

Theorem - The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles Pythagoras Theorem

Pythagoras Theorem Proof for Pythagoras Theorem Converse of Pythagoras Theorem Summary

Introduction

Distance Formula

Section Formula

Area of a Triangle

Summary

Distance Formula

Section Formula

Area of a Triangle

Summary

Introduction

Trigonometric Ratios

Trigonometric Ratios of Some Specific Angles

Trigonometric Ratios of Complementary Angles

Trigonometric Identities

Summary

Trigonometric Ratios

Trigonometric Ratios of Some Specific Angles

Trigonometric Ratios of Complementary Angles

Trigonometric Identities

Summary

Introduction

Heights and Distances

Summary

Heights and Distances

Summary

Introduction

Tangent to a Circle

Number of Tangents from a Point on a Circle

Summary

Tangent to a Circle

Number of Tangents from a Point on a Circle

Summary

Introduction

Division of a Line Segment

Construction of Tangents to a Circle

Construction 11.3 To construct the tangents to a circle from a point outside it. Summary

Division of a Line Segment

Construction of Tangents to a Circle

Construction 11.3 To construct the tangents to a circle from a point outside it. Summary

Introduction

Perimeter and Area of a Circle A Review

Areas of Sector and Segment of a Circle

Areas of Combinations of Plane Figures

Summary

Perimeter and Area of a Circle A Review

Areas of Sector and Segment of a Circle

Areas of Combinations of Plane Figures

Summary

Introduction

Surface Area of a Combination of Solids

Volume of a Combination of Solids

Conversion of Solid from One Shape to Another

Frustum of a Cone

Summary

Surface Area of a Combination of Solids

Volume of a Combination of Solids

Conversion of Solid from One Shape to Another

Frustum of a Cone

Summary

Introduction

Mean of Grouped Data

Mode of Grouped Data

Median of Grouped Data

Graphical Representation of Cumulative Frequency Distribution

Summary

Mean of Grouped Data

Mode of Grouped Data

Median of Grouped Data

Graphical Representation of Cumulative Frequency Distribution

Summary

Introduction

Probability A Theoretical Approach

Summary

Probability A Theoretical Approach

Summary

Reflection of Light

Spherical Mirrors

Image Formation by Spherical Mirrors Representation of Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors Using Ray Diagrams Sign Convention for Reflection by Spherical Mirrors Mirror Formula and Magnification Refraction of Light

Refraction through a Rectangular Glass Slab The Refractive Index Refraction by Spherical Lenses Image Formation by Lenses Image Formation in Lenses Using Ray Diagrams Sign Convention for Spherical Lenses Lens Formula and Magnification Power of a Lens

Spherical Mirrors

Image Formation by Spherical Mirrors Representation of Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors Using Ray Diagrams Sign Convention for Reflection by Spherical Mirrors Mirror Formula and Magnification Refraction of Light

Refraction through a Rectangular Glass Slab The Refractive Index Refraction by Spherical Lenses Image Formation by Lenses Image Formation in Lenses Using Ray Diagrams Sign Convention for Spherical Lenses Lens Formula and Magnification Power of a Lens

The Human eye

Power of Accommodation Defects of Vision and their Correction

Refraction of Light through a Prism

Dispersion of White Light by a Glass Prism

Atmospheric Refraction

Scattering of Light

Tyndall Effect Scattering of light,blue colour of the sky and Colour of the Sun at Sunrise and Sunset

Power of Accommodation Defects of Vision and their Correction

Refraction of Light through a Prism

Dispersion of White Light by a Glass Prism

Atmospheric Refraction

Scattering of Light

Tyndall Effect Scattering of light,blue colour of the sky and Colour of the Sun at Sunrise and Sunset

Electric Current and Circuit

Electric Potential and Potential difference

Circuit diagram

OHMS Law

Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends

Resistance of a system of Resistors

Resistors in Series or Parellel Heating effect of Electric Current

Practical applications of Heating Efect of Electric Current Electric power

Electric Potential and Potential difference

Circuit diagram

OHMS Law

Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends

Resistance of a system of Resistors

Resistors in Series or Parellel Heating effect of Electric Current

Practical applications of Heating Efect of Electric Current Electric power

Magnetic Feld and Field Lines

Magnetic Field due to a Current Carrying conductor

Magnetic Field due to a Current through a Straight Conductor Right-Hand Thumb Rule Magnetic Field due to a Current through a Circular Loop Magnetic Field due to a Current in a Solenoid Force on a Current Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field

Electric Motor

Electro Magnetic Induction

Electric Generator

Domestic Electric Circuits

Magnetic Field due to a Current Carrying conductor

Magnetic Field due to a Current through a Straight Conductor Right-Hand Thumb Rule Magnetic Field due to a Current through a Circular Loop Magnetic Field due to a Current in a Solenoid Force on a Current Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field

Electric Motor

Electro Magnetic Induction

Electric Generator

Domestic Electric Circuits

What is a Good Source of Energy

Conventional Sources of Energy

Fossil Fuels Thermal Power Plant Hydro Power Plants Improvements in the Technology for using Conventional Sources of Energy Alternative or Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

Solar Energy Energy from the Sea Geothermal Energy Nuclear Energy Environmental Consequences

How long will an Energy Source Last Us?

Conventional Sources of Energy

Fossil Fuels Thermal Power Plant Hydro Power Plants Improvements in the Technology for using Conventional Sources of Energy Alternative or Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

Solar Energy Energy from the Sea Geothermal Energy Nuclear Energy Environmental Consequences

How long will an Energy Source Last Us?

Chemical Equations

Writing a Chemical Equation Balanced Chemical Equations Types of Chemical Reactions

Combination Reaction Decomposition Reactions Displacement Reactions Double Displacement Reactions Oxidation and Reduction Effects of Oxidation Reaction in Everyday Life

Corrosion Rancidity

Writing a Chemical Equation Balanced Chemical Equations Types of Chemical Reactions

Combination Reaction Decomposition Reactions Displacement Reactions Double Displacement Reactions Oxidation and Reduction Effects of Oxidation Reaction in Everyday Life

Corrosion Rancidity

Under Standing the Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases

Acids and Bases in the Laboratory Reaction of acids and bases with Metals Reaction of Metal Carbonates and Metal Hydrogen Carbonates with acids How do Acids and Bases React with each other? Reaction of Metallic Oxides with Acids and Non-metallic Oxide with Base What do all Acids and all Bases have in Common?

What Happens to an Acid or a Base in a Water Solution? How Strong are Acid or Base Solutions?

Importance of pH in Everyday Life More About Salts

Family of Salts pH of Salts Chemicals from Common Salt Are the Crystals of salts really dry

Acids and Bases in the Laboratory Reaction of acids and bases with Metals Reaction of Metal Carbonates and Metal Hydrogen Carbonates with acids How do Acids and Bases React with each other? Reaction of Metallic Oxides with Acids and Non-metallic Oxide with Base What do all Acids and all Bases have in Common?

What Happens to an Acid or a Base in a Water Solution? How Strong are Acid or Base Solutions?

Importance of pH in Everyday Life More About Salts

Family of Salts pH of Salts Chemicals from Common Salt Are the Crystals of salts really dry

Physical Properties

Metals Non-metals Chemical Properties of Metals

Reaction Metals with Air, Water, Acids and with Solutions of other Metal Salts The Reactivity Series How do Metals and Non-Metals React?

Properties of Ionic Compounds Occurence of Metals

Extraction of metals low in reactivity series,Middle of the reactivity series and Enrichment of Ores Corrosion

Prevention of Corrosion

Metals Non-metals Chemical Properties of Metals

Reaction Metals with Air, Water, Acids and with Solutions of other Metal Salts The Reactivity Series How do Metals and Non-Metals React?

Properties of Ionic Compounds Occurence of Metals

Extraction of metals low in reactivity series,Middle of the reactivity series and Enrichment of Ores Corrosion

Prevention of Corrosion

Bonding in Carbon- The Covalent bond

Versatile Nature of Carbon

Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds Chains, Branches and Rings Will you be my Friend? Homologous Series Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

Combustion Oxidation Addition Reaction Substitution Reaction Some Important Carbon Compounds Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid

Properties of Ethanol and Ethanoic acid Soaps and Detergents

Versatile Nature of Carbon

Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds Chains, Branches and Rings Will you be my Friend? Homologous Series Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

Combustion Oxidation Addition Reaction Substitution Reaction Some Important Carbon Compounds Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid

Properties of Ethanol and Ethanoic acid Soaps and Detergents

Making Order out of Chaos Early Attempts at the Classification of Elements

Dobereiner's Triads Newlands' Law of Octaves Making Order out of Chaos Mendeleevs Periodic Table

Achievements and Limitations of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table Making Order out of Chaos â€“ The Modern Periodic Table

Position of Elements in the Modern Periodic Table Trends in the Modern Periodic Table

Dobereiner's Triads Newlands' Law of Octaves Making Order out of Chaos Mendeleevs Periodic Table

Achievements and Limitations of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table Making Order out of Chaos â€“ The Modern Periodic Table

Position of Elements in the Modern Periodic Table Trends in the Modern Periodic Table

What are Life Processes?

Nutrition

Autotrophic Nutrition Heterotrophic Nutrition How do Organisms obtain their Nutrition Nutrition in Human Beings Respiration

Respiration in Human beings Human Respiratory System Respiration in Plants Transportation

Transportation in Human beings Our Pump - the Heart Oxygen enters the Blood in the Lungs The Tubes - Blood Vessels Maintenance by Platelets Lymph Transportation in Plants Transport of Water Transport of Food and other Substances Excretion

Excretion in Human beings Excretion in Plants

Nutrition

Autotrophic Nutrition Heterotrophic Nutrition How do Organisms obtain their Nutrition Nutrition in Human Beings Respiration

Respiration in Human beings Human Respiratory System Respiration in Plants Transportation

Transportation in Human beings Our Pump - the Heart Oxygen enters the Blood in the Lungs The Tubes - Blood Vessels Maintenance by Platelets Lymph Transportation in Plants Transport of Water Transport of Food and other Substances Excretion

Excretion in Human beings Excretion in Plants

Animals- Nervous System

What Happens in Reflex Actions Human Brain How are these Tissues Protected? How does the Nervous Tissue cause Action? Coordination in Plants

Immediate Response to Stimulus Movement Due to Growth Hormones in Animals

What Happens in Reflex Actions Human Brain How are these Tissues Protected? How does the Nervous Tissue cause Action? Coordination in Plants

Immediate Response to Stimulus Movement Due to Growth Hormones in Animals

Reproduction

The Importance of Variation Modes of Reproduction used by Single Organisms

Fission Fragmentation Regeneration Budding Vegetative Propagation Spore Formation Sexual Reproduction

Why the Sexual Mode of Reproduction? Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Reproduction in Human Beings Male Reproductive System Female Reproductive System What happens when the Egg is not Fertilised Reproductive Health

The Importance of Variation Modes of Reproduction used by Single Organisms

Fission Fragmentation Regeneration Budding Vegetative Propagation Spore Formation Sexual Reproduction

Why the Sexual Mode of Reproduction? Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Reproduction in Human Beings Male Reproductive System Female Reproductive System What happens when the Egg is not Fertilised Reproductive Health

Accumulation of Variation during Reproduction

Heredity

Inherited traits Rules for the inheritance of Traits ? Mendels contribut How do these Traits get Expressed? Sex Determination Evolution

Acquired and Inherited Traits Speciation

Evolution and Classification

Tracing Evolutionary Relationships Fossils Evolution by Stages Evolution should not be Equated with PROGRESS

Human Evolution

Heredity

Inherited traits Rules for the inheritance of Traits ? Mendels contribut How do these Traits get Expressed? Sex Determination Evolution

Acquired and Inherited Traits Speciation

Evolution and Classification

Tracing Evolutionary Relationships Fossils Evolution by Stages Evolution should not be Equated with PROGRESS

Human Evolution

What Happens when We add Our Waste to the Environment?

Eco System and its Components

Food Chains and Webs How do Our Activities Affect the Environment?

Ozone Layer and how it is getting Depleted Managing the Garbage we Produce

Eco System and its Components

Food Chains and Webs How do Our Activities Affect the Environment?

Ozone Layer and how it is getting Depleted Managing the Garbage we Produce

Why do We need to Manage Our Resources?

Forests and Wild Life

Stakeholders Sustainable Management Water for All

Dams Water Harvesting Coal and Petroleum

An Overview of Natural Resource Management

Forests and Wild Life

Stakeholders Sustainable Management Water for All

Dams Water Harvesting Coal and Petroleum

An Overview of Natural Resource Management

What is Physics?

Scope and Excitement in Physics

Physics Technology and Society

Fundanmental Forces in Nature

Nature of physical Laws

Summary

Scope and Excitement in Physics

Physics Technology and Society

Fundanmental Forces in Nature

Nature of physical Laws

Summary

Introduction

The International System of Units

Measurement of Length

Measurement of Mass

Measurement of Time

Accuracy, Precision of Instruments and Errors in measurement

Significant Figures

Dimensions of Physical Quantities

Dimensional Formulae and Dimensional Equations

Dimensional Analysis and its Applications

Summary

The International System of Units

Measurement of Length

Measurement of Mass

Measurement of Time

Accuracy, Precision of Instruments and Errors in measurement

Significant Figures

Dimensions of Physical Quantities

Dimensional Formulae and Dimensional Equations

Dimensional Analysis and its Applications

Summary

Introduction

Positon, Path Length and Displacement

Average Speed and Instantaneous Speed

Velocity and its Types

Acceleration

Kinematic Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion

Relative Velocity

Summary

Positon, Path Length and Displacement

Average Speed and Instantaneous Speed

Velocity and its Types

Acceleration

Kinematic Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion

Relative Velocity

Summary

Introduction

Scalars and Vectors

Multiplication of Vectors by Real Numbers

Addition and Subtraction of Vectors- Graphical Method

Resolution of Vectors

Motion In a Plane- Position Vector and Displacement

Motion in a Plane with Constant Acceleration

Relative Velocity in Two Dimensions

Projectile Motion

Uniform Circular Motion

Summary

Scalars and Vectors

Multiplication of Vectors by Real Numbers

Addition and Subtraction of Vectors- Graphical Method

Resolution of Vectors

Motion In a Plane- Position Vector and Displacement

Motion in a Plane with Constant Acceleration

Relative Velocity in Two Dimensions

Projectile Motion

Uniform Circular Motion

Summary

Introduction

Aristotles Fallacy

The Law of Inertia

Newtons First Law of Motion

Newtons Second Law of Motion

Newtons Third Law of Motion

Conservation of Momentum

Equilibrium of a Particle

Friction

Circular Motion

Solving Problems in Mechanics

Summary

Aristotles Fallacy

The Law of Inertia

Newtons First Law of Motion

Newtons Second Law of Motion

Newtons Third Law of Motion

Conservation of Momentum

Equilibrium of a Particle

Friction

Circular Motion

Solving Problems in Mechanics

Summary

Introduction

Notions of Work and Kinetic Energy: The Work- Energy Theorem

Work

Kinetic Energy

Work Done by a Variable Force

The Work Energy Theorem for a Variable Force

The Concept of Potential Energy

The Conservation of Mechanical Energy

The potential Energy of a Spring

Various Forms of Energy: The Law of Conservation of Energy

Heat Chemical Energy Electrical Energy Nuclear Energy The Principle of Conservation of Energy Power

Collisions

Summary

Notions of Work and Kinetic Energy: The Work- Energy Theorem

Work

Kinetic Energy

Work Done by a Variable Force

The Work Energy Theorem for a Variable Force

The Concept of Potential Energy

The Conservation of Mechanical Energy

The potential Energy of a Spring

Various Forms of Energy: The Law of Conservation of Energy

Heat Chemical Energy Electrical Energy Nuclear Energy The Principle of Conservation of Energy Power

Collisions

Summary

Introduction

Centre of Mass

Motion of Centre of Mass

Linear Mometum of a System of Particles

Vector Product of Two Vectors

Angular Velocity and its Relation with Linear Velocity

Angular acceleration Torque and Angular Momentum

Equilibrium of a Rigid Body

Centre of gravity Moment of Inertia

Theorems of perpendicular and Parallel Axes

Dynamics of Rotaional motion About a Fixed Axis

Angular Momentum in Case of a Rotation About a Fixed Axis

Rolling Motion

Summary

Centre of Mass

Motion of Centre of Mass

Linear Mometum of a System of Particles

Vector Product of Two Vectors

Angular Velocity and its Relation with Linear Velocity

Angular acceleration Torque and Angular Momentum

Equilibrium of a Rigid Body

Centre of gravity Moment of Inertia

Theorems of perpendicular and Parallel Axes

Dynamics of Rotaional motion About a Fixed Axis

Angular Momentum in Case of a Rotation About a Fixed Axis

Rolling Motion

Summary

Introduction

Keplers Laws

Universal Law of Gravitation

The Gravitational Constant

Acceleration Due to Gravity Of Earth

Acceleration Due to Gravity Below and Above the Surface of Earth

Gravitational Potential Energy

Escape Speed

Earth satellites

Energy of an Orbiting Satellite

Geostationary and Polar Satellites

Weightlessness

Summary

Keplers Laws

Universal Law of Gravitation

The Gravitational Constant

Acceleration Due to Gravity Of Earth

Acceleration Due to Gravity Below and Above the Surface of Earth

Gravitational Potential Energy

Escape Speed

Earth satellites

Energy of an Orbiting Satellite

Geostationary and Polar Satellites

Weightlessness

Summary

Introduction

Elastic behaviour of Solids

Stress and Strain

Hooke's Law

Stress -Strain Curve

Elastic Moduli

Applications of Elastic Behaviour of Materials

Summary

Elastic behaviour of Solids

Stress and Strain

Hooke's Law

Stress -Strain Curve

Elastic Moduli

Applications of Elastic Behaviour of Materials

Summary

Introduction

Pressure

Streamline Flow

Bernoullis Principle

Speed of Efflux: Torricelli?s Law Venturi-meter / Sprayer Dynamic Lift Viscosity

Stoke's Law Reynolds Number

Surface Tension

Drops and Bubbles Capillary Rise Detergents Summary

Pressure

Streamline Flow

Bernoullis Principle

Speed of Efflux: Torricelli?s Law Venturi-meter / Sprayer Dynamic Lift Viscosity

Stoke's Law Reynolds Number

Surface Tension

Drops and Bubbles Capillary Rise Detergents Summary

Introduction

Temperature and Heat

Measurement of Temperature

Ideal - Gas Equation and Absolute Temperature

Thermal Expansion

Specific Heat Capacity

Calorimetry

Change of State

Heat Transfer

Newtons Law of Cooling

Summary

Temperature and Heat

Measurement of Temperature

Ideal - Gas Equation and Absolute Temperature

Thermal Expansion

Specific Heat Capacity

Calorimetry

Change of State

Heat Transfer

Newtons Law of Cooling

Summary

Introduction

Thermal Equilibrium

First law of Thermodynamics

Specific Heat Capacity

Thermodynamic State Variables and Equation of State

Thermodynamic processes

Heat Engines

Refigerators and Heat Pumps

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Reversible and Irreversible Processes

Carnot Engine

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Heat, Internal energy and Work

Summary

Thermal Equilibrium

First law of Thermodynamics

Specific Heat Capacity

Thermodynamic State Variables and Equation of State

Thermodynamic processes

Heat Engines

Refigerators and Heat Pumps

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Reversible and Irreversible Processes

Carnot Engine

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Heat, Internal energy and Work

Summary

Introduction

Molecular Nature of Matter

Behaviour of Gases

Kinetic Theory of an ideal Gas

Pressure of an Ideal Gas Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature Law of Equipartition of Energy

Specific Heat Capacity of gases, solids and water

Mean free Path

Summary

Molecular Nature of Matter

Behaviour of Gases

Kinetic Theory of an ideal Gas

Pressure of an Ideal Gas Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature Law of Equipartition of Energy

Specific Heat Capacity of gases, solids and water

Mean free Path

Summary

Periodic and Oscillatory Motions

Introduction

Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple Harmonic Motion and uniform Circular Motion

Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion

Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion

Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion

Some Systems Executing Simple Harmonic Motion

Oscillations due to a Spring The Simple Pendulum Damped Simple Harmonic motion

Forced Oscillations and Resonance

Summary

Introduction

Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple Harmonic Motion and uniform Circular Motion

Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion

Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion

Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion

Some Systems Executing Simple Harmonic Motion

Oscillations due to a Spring The Simple Pendulum Damped Simple Harmonic motion

Forced Oscillations and Resonance

Summary

Introduction

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Displacement Relation In a Progressive Wave

The Speed of a Travelling Wave

The Principle of Superposition of Waves

Reflection of Waves

Standing Waves and Normal Modes Beats

Doppler Effect

Summary

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Displacement Relation In a Progressive Wave

The Speed of a Travelling Wave

The Principle of Superposition of Waves

Reflection of Waves

Standing Waves and Normal Modes Beats

Doppler Effect

Summary

Introduction

Nature of Matter

Uncertainty in Measurement

Significant Figures Dimensional Analysis Daltons Atomic Theory

Atomic Mass and Molecular Mass

Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric Calculations

Reactions in Solutions Summary

Nature of Matter

Uncertainty in Measurement

Significant Figures Dimensional Analysis Daltons Atomic Theory

Atomic Mass and Molecular Mass

Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric Calculations

Reactions in Solutions Summary

Introduction

Charge to Mass Ratio of Electron Charge on the Electron Discovery of Protons and Neutrons Atomic Models

Thomson Model of Atom Rutherford?s Nuclear Model of Atom Atomic Number and Mass Number Isobars and Isotopes Drawbacks of Rutherford Model Towards Quantum mechanical Model of the Atom

Dual Behaviour of Matter Heisenberg?s Uncertainty Principle Summary

Charge to Mass Ratio of Electron Charge on the Electron Discovery of Protons and Neutrons Atomic Models

Thomson Model of Atom Rutherford?s Nuclear Model of Atom Atomic Number and Mass Number Isobars and Isotopes Drawbacks of Rutherford Model Towards Quantum mechanical Model of the Atom

Dual Behaviour of Matter Heisenberg?s Uncertainty Principle Summary

Why do We need to Classify Elements

Genesis of Periodic Classification

Modern periodic Law and the Present Form of the Periodic Table

Nomen Clature of Elements with Atomic Numbers>100

Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table

Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-.p-,d-,f- Blocks

Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements

Summary

Genesis of Periodic Classification

Modern periodic Law and the Present Form of the Periodic Table

Nomen Clature of Elements with Atomic Numbers>100

Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table

Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-.p-,d-,f- Blocks

Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements

Summary

Kossel Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding

Covalent Bond Lewis Representation of Simple Molecules(The Lewis Structures) Limitations of the Octet Rule Ionic or Electrovalent Bond

Bond Parameters

Bond Length and Bond Angle Bond Enthalpy and Bond Order Resonance Structures Polarity of Bonds The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion(VSEPR) Theory

Valence Bond Theory

Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bonds Hybridisation Types of Hybridisation Molecular Orbital Theory

Formation of Molecular Orbitals Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals(LCAO) Types of Molecular Orbitals Electronic Configuration and Molecular Behaviour Bonding in Some Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules

Hydrogen Bonding

.1 Cause of Formation of Hydrogen Bond

Summary

Covalent Bond Lewis Representation of Simple Molecules(The Lewis Structures) Limitations of the Octet Rule Ionic or Electrovalent Bond

Bond Parameters

Bond Length and Bond Angle Bond Enthalpy and Bond Order Resonance Structures Polarity of Bonds The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion(VSEPR) Theory

Valence Bond Theory

Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bonds Hybridisation Types of Hybridisation Molecular Orbital Theory

Formation of Molecular Orbitals Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals(LCAO) Types of Molecular Orbitals Electronic Configuration and Molecular Behaviour Bonding in Some Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules

Hydrogen Bonding

.1 Cause of Formation of Hydrogen Bond

Summary

Intermolecular Forces

Thermal Energy

Intermolecular Forces vs Thermal Interactions

The Gaseous State

The Gas Laws

Charles Law (Temperature - Volume Relationship) Gay Lussacs Law (Pressure- Temperature Relationship) Avagadro Law (Volume -Amount Realtionship) Ideal - Gas Equation

Density and Molar Mass of a Gaseous Substance

Daltons Law of Partial Pressure

Kinetic molecular Theory of Gases

Behaviour of Real Gases: Deviation form Ideal Gas Behaviour

Liquifaction of Gases

Liquid State

Surface Tension Viscocity Summary

Thermal Energy

Intermolecular Forces vs Thermal Interactions

The Gaseous State

The Gas Laws

Charles Law (Temperature - Volume Relationship) Gay Lussacs Law (Pressure- Temperature Relationship) Avagadro Law (Volume -Amount Realtionship) Ideal - Gas Equation

Density and Molar Mass of a Gaseous Substance

Daltons Law of Partial Pressure

Kinetic molecular Theory of Gases

Behaviour of Real Gases: Deviation form Ideal Gas Behaviour

Liquifaction of Gases

Liquid State

Surface Tension Viscocity Summary

Thermodynamic State

The Internal Energy as a State Function Applications

Work Enthalpy Measurement of Delta U and Delta H: Calorimetry

Enthalpy Change, Delta rH of a Reaction - Reaction Enthalpy

Enthalpies for Different types of Reactions

Spontaneity

Gibbs Energy Change Equilibrium

Summary

The Internal Energy as a State Function Applications

Work Enthalpy Measurement of Delta U and Delta H: Calorimetry

Enthalpy Change, Delta rH of a Reaction - Reaction Enthalpy

Enthalpies for Different types of Reactions

Spontaneity

Gibbs Energy Change Equilibrium

Summary

Equilibrium in Physical Processes

Liquid Vapour Equilibrium Solid Vapour Equilibrium Equilibrium Involving Dissolution of Solid or Gases in Liquids General Characteristics of Equlibria Involving Physical Processes Equilibrium in Chemical Processes - Dynamic Equilibrium

Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant

Homogenous Equilibria

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Applications of Equilibrium Constants

Predicting the Direction of a Reaction Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations Relationship between Equilibrium constant K,Reaction Quotient Q, Gibbs Energy G

Factors Affecting Equilibria

Effect of Temperature Change Effect of a Catalyst Ionic Equilibrium in Solution

Acids, Bases and Salts

. The Bronsted Lowry Acids and Bases Lewis Acids and Bases Ionisation of Acids and Bases

The PH scale Ionisation Constants of Weak Acids Ionisation of Weak Bases Realtion Between Ka and Kb Di- and polybasic Acids and Di - Polyacidic Bases Factors Affecting Acid Strength Common Ion Effect in the Ionization of Acids and Bases Hydrolysis of Salts and the PH of their Solutions Buffer Solutions

Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts

Common Ion Effect On Solubility of Ionic Salts Summary

Liquid Vapour Equilibrium Solid Vapour Equilibrium Equilibrium Involving Dissolution of Solid or Gases in Liquids General Characteristics of Equlibria Involving Physical Processes Equilibrium in Chemical Processes - Dynamic Equilibrium

Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant

Homogenous Equilibria

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Applications of Equilibrium Constants

Predicting the Direction of a Reaction Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations Relationship between Equilibrium constant K,Reaction Quotient Q, Gibbs Energy G

Factors Affecting Equilibria

Effect of Temperature Change Effect of a Catalyst Ionic Equilibrium in Solution

Acids, Bases and Salts

. The Bronsted Lowry Acids and Bases Lewis Acids and Bases Ionisation of Acids and Bases

The PH scale Ionisation Constants of Weak Acids Ionisation of Weak Bases Realtion Between Ka and Kb Di- and polybasic Acids and Di - Polyacidic Bases Factors Affecting Acid Strength Common Ion Effect in the Ionization of Acids and Bases Hydrolysis of Salts and the PH of their Solutions Buffer Solutions

Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts

Common Ion Effect On Solubility of Ionic Salts Summary

Classical Idea of Redox Reactions- Oxidation and Reduction Reactions

Redox Reactions in Terms of Electron Transfer Reactions

Oxidation Number

Types of Redox Reactions Balancing of Redox Reactions Redox Reactions as the Basis for Titrations Redox Reactions and Electrode Processes

Summary

Redox Reactions in Terms of Electron Transfer Reactions

Oxidation Number

Types of Redox Reactions Balancing of Redox Reactions Redox Reactions as the Basis for Titrations Redox Reactions and Electrode Processes

Summary

Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table

Dihydrogen, H2

Isotopes of Hydrogen Preparation of Dihydrogen, H2

Commercial Production of Dihydrogen Properties of Dihydrogen

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Uses of Dihydrogen Hydrides

Covalent or Molecular Hydride Metallic or Non-stoichiometric (or Interstitial ) Hydrides Water

Physical Properties of Water Structure of Water Structure of Ice Chemical Properties of Water Hard and Soft Water Temporary Hardness Permanent Hardness Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

Physical Properties Structure Storage Uses Heavy Water, D2O

Dihydrogen As a Fuel

Summary

Dihydrogen, H2

Isotopes of Hydrogen Preparation of Dihydrogen, H2

Commercial Production of Dihydrogen Properties of Dihydrogen

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Uses of Dihydrogen Hydrides

Covalent or Molecular Hydride Metallic or Non-stoichiometric (or Interstitial ) Hydrides Water

Physical Properties of Water Structure of Water Structure of Ice Chemical Properties of Water Hard and Soft Water Temporary Hardness Permanent Hardness Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

Physical Properties Structure Storage Uses Heavy Water, D2O

Dihydrogen As a Fuel

Summary

Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals

Chemical Properties Uses General Characteristics Of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals

Anomalous Properties of Lithium

Points of Similarities between Lithium and Magnesium Some Important Compounds of Sodium

Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium

Group 2 Elements: Alkaline Earth Metals

Chemical Properties Uses General characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals

Anomalous Behaviour of Berryllium

Diagonal Relationship between Beryllium and Aluminium Some Important Compounds of Calcium

Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium

Summary

Chemical Properties Uses General Characteristics Of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals

Anomalous Properties of Lithium

Points of Similarities between Lithium and Magnesium Some Important Compounds of Sodium

Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium

Group 2 Elements: Alkaline Earth Metals

Chemical Properties Uses General characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals

Anomalous Behaviour of Berryllium

Diagonal Relationship between Beryllium and Aluminium Some Important Compounds of Calcium

Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium

Summary

Group 13 Elements: the Boron Family

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Important Trends and Anomalous Properties of Boron

Some Important Compounds of Boron

Diborane, B2H6 Uses of Boron and Aluminium and their Compounds

Group 14 Elements: The Carbon Family

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Important Trends and Anomalous Behaviour of Carbon

Allotropes of Carbon

Some Important Compounds of Carbon and Silicon

Summary

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Important Trends and Anomalous Properties of Boron

Some Important Compounds of Boron

Diborane, B2H6 Uses of Boron and Aluminium and their Compounds

Group 14 Elements: The Carbon Family

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Important Trends and Anomalous Behaviour of Carbon

Allotropes of Carbon

Some Important Compounds of Carbon and Silicon

Summary

General Introduction

Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds

Some Characteristic Features of Pi Bonds Structural Representations of Organic Compounds

Three-Dimensional Representation of Organic Molecules Classification of Organic Compounds

Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

The IUPAC System of Nomenclature IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkanes Nomenclature of Organic Compounds having Functional Group Nomenclature of Substituted Benzene Compounds Isomerism

Structural Isomerism Stereoisomerism Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism

Fission of a Covalent Bond Nucleophiles and Electrophlies Electron Movement in Organic Reactions Electron Displacement Effects in Covalent Bonds Inductive Effect Resonance Structure Resonance Effect Electromeric Effect (E effect) Hyperconjugation Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds

Crystallisation Distillation Differential Extraction Chromatography Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds

Detection of Other Elements Quantitative Analysis

Nitrogen Halogens Sulphur Phosphorus Oxygen Summary

Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds

Some Characteristic Features of Pi Bonds Structural Representations of Organic Compounds

Three-Dimensional Representation of Organic Molecules Classification of Organic Compounds

Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

The IUPAC System of Nomenclature IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkanes Nomenclature of Organic Compounds having Functional Group Nomenclature of Substituted Benzene Compounds Isomerism

Structural Isomerism Stereoisomerism Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism

Fission of a Covalent Bond Nucleophiles and Electrophlies Electron Movement in Organic Reactions Electron Displacement Effects in Covalent Bonds Inductive Effect Resonance Structure Resonance Effect Electromeric Effect (E effect) Hyperconjugation Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds

Crystallisation Distillation Differential Extraction Chromatography Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds

Detection of Other Elements Quantitative Analysis

Nitrogen Halogens Sulphur Phosphorus Oxygen Summary

Classification

Alkanes

Nomenclature and Isomerism Preparation Properties Chemical properties Conformations Structure of Double Bond Alkenes

Isomerism Preparation Properties Alkynes

Nomenclature and Isomerism Preparation Properties Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Structure of Benzene Aromaticity Preparation of Benzene Properties Directive influence of a functional group in monosubstituted benzene Carcinogenicity and Toxicity

Summary

Alkanes

Nomenclature and Isomerism Preparation Properties Chemical properties Conformations Structure of Double Bond Alkenes

Isomerism Preparation Properties Alkynes

Nomenclature and Isomerism Preparation Properties Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Structure of Benzene Aromaticity Preparation of Benzene Properties Directive influence of a functional group in monosubstituted benzene Carcinogenicity and Toxicity

Summary

Environmental Pollution

Atmospheric Pollution

Tropospheric Pollution Gaseous air pollutants Particulate Pollutants Water Pollution

Causes of Water Pollution Soil Pollution

Industrial Waste

Strategies to Control Environmental Pollution

Green Chemistry

Summary

Atmospheric Pollution

Tropospheric Pollution Gaseous air pollutants Particulate Pollutants Water Pollution

Causes of Water Pollution Soil Pollution

Industrial Waste

Strategies to Control Environmental Pollution

Green Chemistry

Summary

What is Living?

Diversity in the living World

Taxonomic Categories

Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Taxonomical Aids

Herbarium Botanical Gardens Museum Zoological Parks Key Summary

Diversity in the living World

Taxonomic Categories

Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Taxonomical Aids

Herbarium Botanical Gardens Museum Zoological Parks Key Summary

Kingdom Monera

Archaebacteria Eubacteria Kingdom Protista

Chrysophytes Dianoflagellates Euglenoids Slime Moulds Protozoans Kingdom Fungi

Phycomycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes Deuteromycetes Kingdom plantae

Kingdom Animalia

Viruses, Viroids and Lichens

Summary

Archaebacteria Eubacteria Kingdom Protista

Chrysophytes Dianoflagellates Euglenoids Slime Moulds Protozoans Kingdom Fungi

Phycomycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes Deuteromycetes Kingdom plantae

Kingdom Animalia

Viruses, Viroids and Lichens

Summary

Algae

Chlorophyceae Phaeophyceae Rhodophyceae Bryophytes

Liverworts Mosses Pteridophytes

Gymnosperms

Angiosperms

Plant life Cycle and Alternation of Generations

Summary

Chlorophyceae Phaeophyceae Rhodophyceae Bryophytes

Liverworts Mosses Pteridophytes

Gymnosperms

Angiosperms

Plant life Cycle and Alternation of Generations

Summary

Basis of Classification

Levels of Organisation Symmetry Diploblastic and Triploblastic Organisation Coelom Segmentation Notochord Classification of Animals

Phylum ? Porifera Phylum ? Coelenterata (Cnidaria Phylum ? Ctenophora Phylum ? Platyhelminthes Phylum ? Aschelminthes Phylum ? Annelida Phylum ? Arthropoda Phylum ? Mollusca Phylum ? Echinodermata Phylum ? Hemichordata Phylum ? Chordata Class ? Cyclostomata Class ? Chondrichthyes Class ? Osteichthyes Class ? Amphibia Class ? Reptilia Class ? Aves Class ? Mammalia Summary

Levels of Organisation Symmetry Diploblastic and Triploblastic Organisation Coelom Segmentation Notochord Classification of Animals

Phylum ? Porifera Phylum ? Coelenterata (Cnidaria Phylum ? Ctenophora Phylum ? Platyhelminthes Phylum ? Aschelminthes Phylum ? Annelida Phylum ? Arthropoda Phylum ? Mollusca Phylum ? Echinodermata Phylum ? Hemichordata Phylum ? Chordata Class ? Cyclostomata Class ? Chondrichthyes Class ? Osteichthyes Class ? Amphibia Class ? Reptilia Class ? Aves Class ? Mammalia Summary

The Root

Regions of the Root Modifications of Root The Stem

Modifications of Stem The Leaf

Venation Types of Leaves Phyllotaxy Modifications of Leaves The Inflorescence

The Flower

Parts of a Flower Calyx Corolla Androecium Gynoecium The Fruit

The Seed

Structure of a Dicotyledonous Seed Structure of Monocotyledonous Seed Description of Some Important Families

Fabaceae Solanaceae Lilaceae Summary

Regions of the Root Modifications of Root The Stem

Modifications of Stem The Leaf

Venation Types of Leaves Phyllotaxy Modifications of Leaves The Inflorescence

The Flower

Parts of a Flower Calyx Corolla Androecium Gynoecium The Fruit

The Seed

Structure of a Dicotyledonous Seed Structure of Monocotyledonous Seed Description of Some Important Families

Fabaceae Solanaceae Lilaceae Summary

The Tissues

The Tissue System

Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants

Secondary Growth

Summary

The Tissue System

Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants

Secondary Growth

Summary

Animal Tissues

Organ and Organ System

Earthworm

Cockroach

Frogs

Summary

Organ and Organ System

Earthworm

Cockroach

Frogs

Summary

What is a Cell?

Cell Theory

An Overview of Cell

Prokaryotic Cells

Cell Envelope and its Modifications Eukaryotic Cells

Cell Membrane Cell Wall Endomembrane System The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Plastids Ribosomes Cytoskeleton Cilia and Flagella Centrosome and Centrioles Nucleus Microbodies Summary

Cell Theory

An Overview of Cell

Prokaryotic Cells

Cell Envelope and its Modifications Eukaryotic Cells

Cell Membrane Cell Wall Endomembrane System The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Plastids Ribosomes Cytoskeleton Cilia and Flagella Centrosome and Centrioles Nucleus Microbodies Summary

How to Analyse Chemical Composition?

Primary and Secondary Metabolites

Biomacromolecules

Proteins

Polysaccharides

Nucleic Acids

Structure of Proteins

Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer

Dynamic State of Body Constituents- Concept of Metabolism

Metabolic Basis for Living

The Living State

Enzymes

Chemical Reactions How do Enzymes bring about such High Rates of Chemical Conversions? Nature of Enzyme Action Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes Co-factors Summary

Primary and Secondary Metabolites

Biomacromolecules

Proteins

Polysaccharides

Nucleic Acids

Structure of Proteins

Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer

Dynamic State of Body Constituents- Concept of Metabolism

Metabolic Basis for Living

The Living State

Enzymes

Chemical Reactions How do Enzymes bring about such High Rates of Chemical Conversions? Nature of Enzyme Action Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes Co-factors Summary

Cell Cycle

Phases of Cell Cycle M Phase

Significance of Mitosis

Meiosis

Significance of Meiosis

Summary

Phases of Cell Cycle M Phase

Significance of Mitosis

Meiosis

Significance of Meiosis

Summary

Means of Transport

Comparison of Different Transport Processes Plant-Water Relations

Water Potential Osmosis Plasmolysis Imbibition Long Distance Transport of Water

Transpiration

Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients

Uptake of Mineral Ions Translocation of Mineral Ions PhloemTransport: Flow From Source to Sink

The Pressure Flow or Mass Flow Hypothesis Summary

Comparison of Different Transport Processes Plant-Water Relations

Water Potential Osmosis Plasmolysis Imbibition Long Distance Transport of Water

Transpiration

Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients

Uptake of Mineral Ions Translocation of Mineral Ions PhloemTransport: Flow From Source to Sink

The Pressure Flow or Mass Flow Hypothesis Summary

Methods to Study the Mineral Requirements

Essential Mineral Elements

Criteria for Essentiality Role of Macro- and Micro-nutrients Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Elements Toxicity of Micronutrients Mechanism of Absorption of Elements

Translocation of Solutes

Soil as Reservoir of Essential Elements

Metabolism of Nitrogen

Nitrogen Cycle Biological Nitrogen Fixation Summary

Essential Mineral Elements

Criteria for Essentiality Role of Macro- and Micro-nutrients Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Elements Toxicity of Micronutrients Mechanism of Absorption of Elements

Translocation of Solutes

Soil as Reservoir of Essential Elements

Metabolism of Nitrogen

Nitrogen Cycle Biological Nitrogen Fixation Summary

What do we Know?

Early Experiments

Where Does Photosynthesis Take Place?

How Many Pigments Are Involved in Photosynthesis

What is Light Reaction?

The Electron Transport

Splitting of Water Cyclic and Non-cyclic Photo-phosphorylation Chemiosmotic Hypothesis Where Are The ATP AND NADPH Used?

The Primary Acceptor of CO2 The Calvin Cycle The C4 Pathway

Photorespiration

Factors Affecting Phototsynthesis

Carbon dioxide Concentration Temperature Water Summary

Early Experiments

Where Does Photosynthesis Take Place?

How Many Pigments Are Involved in Photosynthesis

What is Light Reaction?

The Electron Transport

Splitting of Water Cyclic and Non-cyclic Photo-phosphorylation Chemiosmotic Hypothesis Where Are The ATP AND NADPH Used?

The Primary Acceptor of CO2 The Calvin Cycle The C4 Pathway

Photorespiration

Factors Affecting Phototsynthesis

Carbon dioxide Concentration Temperature Water Summary

Do Plants Breathe

Glycolysis

Fermentation

Aerobic Respiration

The Respiratory Balance Sheet

Amphibolic Pathway

Respiratory Quotient

Summary

Glycolysis

Fermentation

Aerobic Respiration

The Respiratory Balance Sheet

Amphibolic Pathway

Respiratory Quotient

Summary

Growth

Growth is Measurable Phases of Growth Growth Rates Conditions for Growth Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Rediffetentiation

Development

Plant Growth Regulators

The Discovery of Plant Growth Regulators Physiological Effects of Plant Growth Regulators Gibberellins Cytokinins Ethylen Abscisic acid Photoperiodism

Vernalisation

Summary

Growth is Measurable Phases of Growth Growth Rates Conditions for Growth Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Rediffetentiation

Development

Plant Growth Regulators

The Discovery of Plant Growth Regulators Physiological Effects of Plant Growth Regulators Gibberellins Cytokinins Ethylen Abscisic acid Photoperiodism

Vernalisation

Summary

Digestive System

Alimentary Canal Digestive Glands Digestion of Food

Absorption of Digested Food Products

Disorders of Digestive System

Summary

Alimentary Canal Digestive Glands Digestion of Food

Absorption of Digested Food Products

Disorders of Digestive System

Summary

Respiratory Organs

Human Respiratory System Mechanism of Breathing

Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Exchange of Gases

Transport of Gases

Transport of Carbon dioxide Regulation of Respiration

Disorders of Respiratory System

Summary

Human Respiratory System Mechanism of Breathing

Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Exchange of Gases

Transport of Gases

Transport of Carbon dioxide Regulation of Respiration

Disorders of Respiratory System

Summary

Blood

Formed Elements Blood Groups Rh grouping Coagulation of Blood Lymph (Tissue Fluid)

Circulatory Pathways

Human Circulatory System Cardiac Cycle Electrocardiograph (ECG) Double Circulation

Regulation of Cardiac Activity

Disorders of Circulatory System

Summary

Formed Elements Blood Groups Rh grouping Coagulation of Blood Lymph (Tissue Fluid)

Circulatory Pathways

Human Circulatory System Cardiac Cycle Electrocardiograph (ECG) Double Circulation

Regulation of Cardiac Activity

Disorders of Circulatory System

Summary

Human Excretory System

Urine Formation

Function of the Tubules

Mechanism of Concentration of the Filtrate

Regulation of Kidney Function

Micturition

Role of Other Organs in Excretion

Disorders of the Excretory System

Summary

Urine Formation

Function of the Tubules

Mechanism of Concentration of the Filtrate

Regulation of Kidney Function

Micturition

Role of Other Organs in Excretion

Disorders of the Excretory System

Summary

Types of Movement

Muscle

Structure of Contractile Proteins Mechanism of Muscle Contraction Skeletal System

Joints

Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System

Summary

Muscle

Structure of Contractile Proteins Mechanism of Muscle Contraction Skeletal System

Joints

Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System

Summary

Neural System

Human Neural System

Central Neural system

Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Reflex Action and Reflex Arc

Sensory Reception and Processing

Eye The Ear Mechanism of Hearing Summary

Neuron as structural and functional unit of neural system

Generation and Conduction of Nerve Impulse Transmission of impulses

Human Neural System

Central Neural system

Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Reflex Action and Reflex Arc

Sensory Reception and Processing

Eye The Ear Mechanism of Hearing Summary

Neuron as structural and functional unit of neural system

Generation and Conduction of Nerve Impulse Transmission of impulses

Endocrine Glands and Hormones

Human Endocrine System

The Pituitary Gland The Pineal Gland Thyroid Gland Parathyroid Gland Thymus Adrenal Gland Pancreas Testis Ovary Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract

Mechanism of Hormone Action

Summary

Human Endocrine System

The Pituitary Gland The Pineal Gland Thyroid Gland Parathyroid Gland Thymus Adrenal Gland Pancreas Testis Ovary Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract

Mechanism of Hormone Action

Summary

Introduction

Sets and their Representations

The Empty Set

Finite and Infinite Sets

Equal Sets

Subsets

Intervals as subsets of R Power Set

Universal Set

Venn Diagrams

Operations on Sets

Union of sets Intersection of sets Difference of sets Complement of a Set

Practical Problems on Union and Intersection of Two Sets

Summary

Sets and their Representations

The Empty Set

Finite and Infinite Sets

Equal Sets

Subsets

Intervals as subsets of R Power Set

Universal Set

Venn Diagrams

Operations on Sets

Union of sets Intersection of sets Difference of sets Complement of a Set

Practical Problems on Union and Intersection of Two Sets

Summary

Introduction

Cartesian Products of Sets

Relations

Functions

Some functions and their graphs Algebra of Real Functions Summary

Cartesian Products of Sets

Relations

Functions

Some functions and their graphs Algebra of Real Functions Summary

Introduction

Angles

Degree Measure Radian measure Relation between Radian and Real numbers Relation between Degree and Radian Trigonometric Functions

Sign of Trigonometric Functions Domain and Range of Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Functions of Sum and Difference of Two Angles

Trigonometric Equations

Summary

Angles

Degree Measure Radian measure Relation between Radian and Real numbers Relation between Degree and Radian Trigonometric Functions

Sign of Trigonometric Functions Domain and Range of Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Functions of Sum and Difference of Two Angles

Trigonometric Equations

Summary

Introduction

Motivation

The Principle of Mathematical Induction

Summary

Motivation

The Principle of Mathematical Induction

Summary

Introduction

Complex Numbers

Algebra of Complex Numbers

Addition of two complex numbers Difference of two complex numbers Multiplication of two complex numbers Division of two complex numbers The square roots of a negative real number Power of i Identities The Modulus and the Conjugate of a Complex Number

Argand Plane and Polar Representation

Polar representation of a complex number Quadratic Equations

Summary

Complex Numbers

Algebra of Complex Numbers

Addition of two complex numbers Difference of two complex numbers Multiplication of two complex numbers Division of two complex numbers The square roots of a negative real number Power of i Identities The Modulus and the Conjugate of a Complex Number

Argand Plane and Polar Representation

Polar representation of a complex number Quadratic Equations

Summary

Introduction

Inequalities

Algebraic Solutions of Linear Inequalities in One Variable and their Graphical Representation

Graphical Solution of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables

Solution of System of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables

Summary

Inequalities

Algebraic Solutions of Linear Inequalities in One Variable and their Graphical Representation

Graphical Solution of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables

Solution of System of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables

Summary

Introduction

Fundamental Principle of Counting

Permutations

Permutations when all the objects are distinct Factorial notation Derivation of the formula for nPr Permutations when all the objects are not distinct objects Combinations

Summary

Fundamental Principle of Counting

Permutations

Permutations when all the objects are distinct Factorial notation Derivation of the formula for nPr Permutations when all the objects are not distinct objects Combinations

Summary

Introduction

Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices

Binomial theorem for any positive integer n, Some special cases In the expansion of (a + b)n, General and Middle Terms

Summary

Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices

Binomial theorem for any positive integer n, Some special cases In the expansion of (a + b)n, General and Middle Terms

Summary

Introduction

Sequences

Series

Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)

Arithmetic mean Geometric Progression (G . P.)

General term of a G .P. Sum to n terms of a G .P. Geometric Mean (G .M.) Relationship Between A.M. and G.M.

Sum to n Terms of Special Series

Summary

Sequences

Series

Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)

Arithmetic mean Geometric Progression (G . P.)

General term of a G .P. Sum to n terms of a G .P. Geometric Mean (G .M.) Relationship Between A.M. and G.M.

Sum to n Terms of Special Series

Summary

Introduction

Slope of a Line

Slope of a line when coordinates of any two points on the line are given Conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity of lines in terms of their slopes Angle between two lines A Collinearity of three points Various Forms of the Equation of a Line

Horizontal and vertical lines Point-slope form Two-point form Slope-intercept form Intercept - form Normal form General Equation of a Line

Different forms of Ax + By + C = 0 Distance of a Point From a Line

Distance between two parallel lines Summary

Slope of a Line

Slope of a line when coordinates of any two points on the line are given Conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity of lines in terms of their slopes Angle between two lines A Collinearity of three points Various Forms of the Equation of a Line

Horizontal and vertical lines Point-slope form Two-point form Slope-intercept form Intercept - form Normal form General Equation of a Line

Different forms of Ax + By + C = 0 Distance of a Point From a Line

Distance between two parallel lines Summary

Introduction

Circle

Parabola

Standard equations of parabola Latus rectum Ellipse

Special cases of an ellipse Eccentricity Standard equations of an ellipse Latus rectum Relationship between semi major, semi minor axis and the distance of the focus from the centre Hyperbola

Eccentricity Standard equation of Hyperbola Latus Rectum Summary

Sections of a Cone

Circle

Parabola

Standard equations of parabola Latus rectum Ellipse

Special cases of an ellipse Eccentricity Standard equations of an ellipse Latus rectum Relationship between semi major, semi minor axis and the distance of the focus from the centre Hyperbola

Eccentricity Standard equation of Hyperbola Latus Rectum Summary

Sections of a Cone

Introduction

Coordinate Axes and Coordinate Planes in Three Dimensional Space

Coordinates of a Point in Space

Distance between Two Points

Section Formula

Summary

Coordinate Axes and Coordinate Planes in Three Dimensional Space

Coordinates of a Point in Space

Distance between Two Points

Section Formula

Summary

Introduction

Intuitive Idea of Derivatives

Limits

Limits of Trigonometric Functions

Derivatives

Algebra of derivative of functions Derivative of polynomials and Trigonometric Functions Summary

Intuitive Idea of Derivatives

Limits

Limits of Trigonometric Functions

Derivatives

Algebra of derivative of functions Derivative of polynomials and Trigonometric Functions Summary

Introduction

Statements

New Statements from Old

Negation of a statement Compound statements Special Words/Phrases

The word And The word Or Quantifiers rd ?And rd ?Or fiers Implications

Contrapositive and converse Validating Statement By Contradiction

Summary

Statements

New Statements from Old

Negation of a statement Compound statements Special Words/Phrases

The word And The word Or Quantifiers rd ?And rd ?Or fiers Implications

Contrapositive and converse Validating Statement By Contradiction

Summary

Introduction

Measures of Dispersion

Range

Mean Deviation

Mean deviation for ungrouped data Mean deviation for grouped data Limitations of Mean Deviation Variance and Standard Deviation

Analysis of Frequency Distributions

Summary

Measures of Dispersion

Range

Mean Deviation

Mean deviation for ungrouped data Mean deviation for grouped data Limitations of Mean Deviation Variance and Standard Deviation

Analysis of Frequency Distributions

Summary

Introduction

Random Experiments

Event

Axiomatic Approach to Probability

Summary

Random Experiments

Event

Axiomatic Approach to Probability

Summary

Introduction

Electric Charge

Conductors and Insulators

Charging by Induction

Basic Properties of Electric Charge

Coulombs Law

Forces between Multiple Charges

Electric Field

Electric Field Lines

Electric Flux

Electric Dipole

Dipole in a Uniform External Field

Continuous Charge Distribution

Gauss's Law

Applications of Gauss's Law

Summary

Electric Charge

Conductors and Insulators

Charging by Induction

Basic Properties of Electric Charge

Coulombs Law

Forces between Multiple Charges

Electric Field

Electric Field Lines

Electric Flux

Electric Dipole

Dipole in a Uniform External Field

Continuous Charge Distribution

Gauss's Law

Applications of Gauss's Law

Summary

Introduction

Electrostatic Potential

Potential Due to a Point Charge

Potential Due to an Electric Dipole

Potential Due to a System of Charges

Equipotential Surfaces

Potential Energy of a System of Charges

Potential Energy in an External Field

Electrostatics of Conductors

Dielectrics and Polarisation

Capacitors and Capacitance

The Parallel Plate Capacitor

Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance

Combination of Capacitors

Capacitors in series Capacitors in parallel Energy Stored in a Capacitor

Van De Graaff Generator

Summary

Electrostatic Potential

Potential Due to a Point Charge

Potential Due to an Electric Dipole

Potential Due to a System of Charges

Equipotential Surfaces

Potential Energy of a System of Charges

Potential Energy in an External Field

Electrostatics of Conductors

Dielectrics and Polarisation

Capacitors and Capacitance

The Parallel Plate Capacitor

Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance

Combination of Capacitors

Capacitors in series Capacitors in parallel Energy Stored in a Capacitor

Van De Graaff Generator

Summary

Introduction

Electric Current

Electric Currents in Conductors

Ohm s Law

Drift of Electrons and the origin of Resistivity

Limitations of Ohm s Law

Resistivity of Various Materials

Temperature Dependence of Resistivity

Electrical Energy, Power

Combination of Resistors- Series and Parallel

Cells, EMF, Internal Resistance

Cells in Series and in Parallel

Kirchhoff s Law

Wheatstone Bridge

Meter Bridge

Potentiometer

Summary

Electric Current

Electric Currents in Conductors

Ohm s Law

Drift of Electrons and the origin of Resistivity

Limitations of Ohm s Law

Resistivity of Various Materials

Temperature Dependence of Resistivity

Electrical Energy, Power

Combination of Resistors- Series and Parallel

Cells, EMF, Internal Resistance

Cells in Series and in Parallel

Kirchhoff s Law

Wheatstone Bridge

Meter Bridge

Potentiometer

Summary

Introduction

MagneticForce

Magnetic Field, Lorentz Force Magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor Motion in a Magnetic Field

Motion in combined electric and magnetic field-Velocity selector

Magnetic Field due to a Current Element Biot-Savart Law

Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop

Ampere s Circuital Law

The Solenoid and The Toroid

The solenoid The toroid Force between two parallel currents, the Ampere

Torque on Current Loop, Magnetic Dipole

Torque on a rectangular current loop in a uniform magnetic field Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron The Moving Coil Galvanometer

Summary

MagneticForce

Magnetic Field, Lorentz Force Magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor Motion in a Magnetic Field

Motion in combined electric and magnetic field-Velocity selector

Magnetic Field due to a Current Element Biot-Savart Law

Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop

Ampere s Circuital Law

The Solenoid and The Toroid

The solenoid The toroid Force between two parallel currents, the Ampere

Torque on Current Loop, Magnetic Dipole

Torque on a rectangular current loop in a uniform magnetic field Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron The Moving Coil Galvanometer

Summary

Introduction

The Bar Magnet

The magnetic field lines Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid The dipole in a uniform magnetic field Magnetism and Guass s Law

The Earth s Magnetism

Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity

Magnetic Properties of Materials

Permanent magnets and Electromagnets

Summary

The Bar Magnet

The magnetic field lines Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid The dipole in a uniform magnetic field Magnetism and Guass s Law

The Earth s Magnetism

Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity

Magnetic Properties of Materials

Permanent magnets and Electromagnets

Summary

Introduction

The experiments of Faraday and Henry

Magnetic Flux

Faraday s Law of Induction

Lenz s Law and Conservation of Energy

Motional Electromotive Force

Energy Consideration: A Quantitative Study

Eddy Currents

Inductance

Mutual Inductance Self Inductance AC Generator

Summary

The experiments of Faraday and Henry

Magnetic Flux

Faraday s Law of Induction

Lenz s Law and Conservation of Energy

Motional Electromotive Force

Energy Consideration: A Quantitative Study

Eddy Currents

Inductance

Mutual Inductance Self Inductance AC Generator

Summary

Introduction

AC Voltage applied to a Resistor

Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors- Phasors

AC Voltage applied to an Inductor

AC Voltage applied to a Capacitor

AC Voltage applied to a Series LCR Circuit

Phasor-diagram solution Resonance Power in AC Circuit: The Power Factor

LC Oscillations

Transformers

Summary

AC Voltage applied to a Resistor

Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors- Phasors

AC Voltage applied to an Inductor

AC Voltage applied to a Capacitor

AC Voltage applied to a Series LCR Circuit

Phasor-diagram solution Resonance Power in AC Circuit: The Power Factor

LC Oscillations

Transformers

Summary

Introduction

Displacement Current

Electromagnetic Waves

Sources of Electromagnetic Waves Nature of Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Spectrum

Radio waves Microwaves Infrared waves Visible rays Ultraviolet rays X-rays Gamma rays Summary

Displacement Current

Electromagnetic Waves

Sources of Electromagnetic Waves Nature of Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Spectrum

Radio waves Microwaves Infrared waves Visible rays Ultraviolet rays X-rays Gamma rays Summary

Introduction

Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors

Sign convention Focal length of spherical mirrors The Mirror Equation Refraction

Total Internal Reflection

Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses

Refraction by a lens Power of a lens Combination of thin lenses in contact Refraction through a Prism

Dispersion by a Prism

Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight

The Rainbow Scattering of light Optical Instruments

The Eye The Microscope Telescope Summary

Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors

Sign convention Focal length of spherical mirrors The Mirror Equation Refraction

Total Internal Reflection

Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses

Refraction by a lens Power of a lens Combination of thin lenses in contact Refraction through a Prism

Dispersion by a Prism

Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight

The Rainbow Scattering of light Optical Instruments

The Eye The Microscope Telescope Summary

Introduction

Huygens Principle

Refraction and Reflection of Plane Waves using Huygens Principle

Reflection of a Plane Wave by a Plane Surface The Doppler Effect Coherent and incoherent Addition of Waves

Interference of Light Waves and Young s Experiment

Diffraction

The single slit Resolving Power of Pptical Instruments Summary

Polarisation

Polarisation by Scattering

Polarisation by Reflection

Huygens Principle

Refraction and Reflection of Plane Waves using Huygens Principle

Reflection of a Plane Wave by a Plane Surface The Doppler Effect Coherent and incoherent Addition of Waves

Interference of Light Waves and Young s Experiment

Diffraction

The single slit Resolving Power of Pptical Instruments Summary

Polarisation

Polarisation by Scattering

Polarisation by Reflection

Introduction

Electron Emission

Phototelectric Effect

Hallwachs' and Lenard's observations Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect

Effect of potential on photoelectric current Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light

Einstein's Photoelctric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation

Particle Nature of Light: The photon

Wave Nature of Matter

Davisson and Germer Experiment

Summary

Electron Emission

Phototelectric Effect

Hallwachs' and Lenard's observations Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect

Effect of potential on photoelectric current Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light

Einstein's Photoelctric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation

Particle Nature of Light: The photon

Wave Nature of Matter

Davisson and Germer Experiment

Summary

Introduction

Alpha-Particle Scattering and Rutherford s Nuclear Model of Atom

Alpha-particle trajectory Electron orbits Atomic Spectra

Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom

Energy levels The Line Spectra of Hydrogen Atom

De Broglie s Explanation of Bohr s Second Postulate of Quantisation

Summary

Alpha-Particle Scattering and Rutherford s Nuclear Model of Atom

Alpha-particle trajectory Electron orbits Atomic Spectra

Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom

Energy levels The Line Spectra of Hydrogen Atom

De Broglie s Explanation of Bohr s Second Postulate of Quantisation

Summary

Introduction

Atomic Massesand Composition of Nucleus

Size of the Nucleus

Mass - Energy Nuclear Binding Energy Nuclear Force

Radioactivity

Alpha decay Beta decay Gamma decay Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Reactor Nuclear fusion Energy Generation in Stars Summary

Atomic Massesand Composition of Nucleus

Size of the Nucleus

Mass - Energy Nuclear Binding Energy Nuclear Force

Radioactivity

Alpha decay Beta decay Gamma decay Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Reactor Nuclear fusion Energy Generation in Stars Summary

Introduction

Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors

Intrinsic Semiconductor

Extrinsic Semiconductor

p-n Junction

Semiconductor Diode

p-n junction diode under forward bias p-n junction diode under reverse bias Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier

Special Purpose of p-n Junction Diodes

Zener diode Optoelectronic junction devices Junction Transistor

Basic transistor circuit configurations and transistor characteristics Transistor as an Amplifier (CE-Configuration) Feedback amplifier and transistor oscillator Digital Electronics and Logic Gates

Integrated Circuits

Summary

Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors

Intrinsic Semiconductor

Extrinsic Semiconductor

p-n Junction

Semiconductor Diode

p-n junction diode under forward bias p-n junction diode under reverse bias Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier

Special Purpose of p-n Junction Diodes

Zener diode Optoelectronic junction devices Junction Transistor

Basic transistor circuit configurations and transistor characteristics Transistor as an Amplifier (CE-Configuration) Feedback amplifier and transistor oscillator Digital Electronics and Logic Gates

Integrated Circuits

Summary

Introduction

Elements of a Communication System

Basic Terminology used in Electronic Communication Systems

Bandwidth of Signals

Bandwidth of Transmission Medium

Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves

Modulation and its Necessity

Amplitude Modulation

Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave

Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave

Summary

Elements of a Communication System

Basic Terminology used in Electronic Communication Systems

Bandwidth of Signals

Bandwidth of Transmission Medium

Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves

Modulation and its Necessity

Amplitude Modulation

Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave

Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave

Summary

Introduction

Amorphous and Crystalline Solids

Classification of Crystalline Solids

Molecular Solids Ionic Solids Covalent or Network Solids Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells

Primitive and centered Unit cell Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell

Body- Centred Cubic Unit Cell Face-Centred Cubic Unit Cell Close Packed Structures

Formula of a Compound and Number of Voids Packing Efficiency

Packing Efficiency in hcp and ccp Structures Efficiency of Packing in Body-Centred Cubic Structures Packing Efficiency in Simple Cubic Lattice Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions

Imperfections in Solids

Types of Point Defects Electrical Properties

Conduction of Electricity in Metals and in Semiconductors Magnetic Properties

Summary

Amorphous and Crystalline Solids

Classification of Crystalline Solids

Molecular Solids Ionic Solids Covalent or Network Solids Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells

Primitive and centered Unit cell Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell

Body- Centred Cubic Unit Cell Face-Centred Cubic Unit Cell Close Packed Structures

Formula of a Compound and Number of Voids Packing Efficiency

Packing Efficiency in hcp and ccp Structures Efficiency of Packing in Body-Centred Cubic Structures Packing Efficiency in Simple Cubic Lattice Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions

Imperfections in Solids

Types of Point Defects Electrical Properties

Conduction of Electricity in Metals and in Semiconductors Magnetic Properties

Summary

Types of Solutions

Expressing Concentration of Solutions

Solubility

Solubility of a Solid in a Liquid Solubility of a Gas in a Liquid Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions

Vapour pressure of Liquid Solutions Raoult s Law as a special case of Henry s Law Vapour Pressure of solutions of Solids in liquids Ideal and Non ideal Solutions

Ideal Solutions Non- Ideal Solutions Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass

Relative Lowering of Vapour Pressure Elevation of Boiling point Depression of Feezing Point Osmosis and Osmotic pressure Reverse Osmosis and Water Purification Abnormal Molar Masses

Summary

Expressing Concentration of Solutions

Solubility

Solubility of a Solid in a Liquid Solubility of a Gas in a Liquid Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions

Vapour pressure of Liquid Solutions Raoult s Law as a special case of Henry s Law Vapour Pressure of solutions of Solids in liquids Ideal and Non ideal Solutions

Ideal Solutions Non- Ideal Solutions Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass

Relative Lowering of Vapour Pressure Elevation of Boiling point Depression of Feezing Point Osmosis and Osmotic pressure Reverse Osmosis and Water Purification Abnormal Molar Masses

Summary

Electrochemical Cells

Galvanic Cells

Nernst Equation

Equilibrium Constant from Nernst Equation Electrochemical Cell and Gibbs Energy of the Reaction Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions

Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis

Batteries

Fuel Cells

Corrosion

Summary

Galvanic Cells

Nernst Equation

Equilibrium Constant from Nernst Equation Electrochemical Cell and Gibbs Energy of the Reaction Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions

Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis

Batteries

Fuel Cells

Corrosion

Summary

Rate of a Chemical Reaction

Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction

Dependence of Rate on Concentration Rate Expression and Rate Constant Order of a Reaction Molecularity of a Reaction Integrated Rate Equations

Zero Order Reactions First Order Reactions Half-Life of a Reaction Pseudo First Order Reaction

Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction

Effect of Catalyst Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions

Summary

Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction

Dependence of Rate on Concentration Rate Expression and Rate Constant Order of a Reaction Molecularity of a Reaction Integrated Rate Equations

Zero Order Reactions First Order Reactions Half-Life of a Reaction Pseudo First Order Reaction

Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction

Effect of Catalyst Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions

Summary

Adsorption

Distinction between Adsorption and Absorption Mechanism of Adsorption Types of Adsorption Adsorption Isotherms Applications of Adsorption Catalysis

Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis Adsorption Theory of Heterogeneous Catalysis Shape Selective Catalysis by Zeolites Enzyme Catalysis Catalysts in Industry Colloids

Classification of Colloids

Classification based on Physical State of Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium Classification based on Nature of Interaction between Dispersed Phase and Dispersion medium Classification based on Type of Particles of the Dispersed Phase, Multimolecular, Macromolecular and Associated Colloids Preparation of Colloids Purification of Colloidal Solutions Properties of Colloidal Solutions Emulsions

Colloids Around Us

Summary

Distinction between Adsorption and Absorption Mechanism of Adsorption Types of Adsorption Adsorption Isotherms Applications of Adsorption Catalysis

Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis Adsorption Theory of Heterogeneous Catalysis Shape Selective Catalysis by Zeolites Enzyme Catalysis Catalysts in Industry Colloids

Classification of Colloids

Classification based on Physical State of Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium Classification based on Nature of Interaction between Dispersed Phase and Dispersion medium Classification based on Type of Particles of the Dispersed Phase, Multimolecular, Macromolecular and Associated Colloids Preparation of Colloids Purification of Colloidal Solutions Properties of Colloidal Solutions Emulsions

Colloids Around Us

Summary

Occurrence of Metals

Concentration of Ores

Magnetic Seperation Froth Floatation Method Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore

Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy

Applications Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy

Oxidation Reduction

Refining

Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron

Summary

Concentration of Ores

Magnetic Seperation Froth Floatation Method Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore

Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy

Applications Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy

Oxidation Reduction

Refining

Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron

Summary

Group 15 Elements

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Dinitrogen

Ammonia

Oxides of Nitrogen

Nitric Acid

Phosphorus - Allotropic Forms

Phosphine

Phosphorus Halides

Phosphorus Pentachloride Oxoacids of Phosphorus

Group 16 Elements

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Dioxygen

Simple Oxides

Ozone

Sulphur - Allotropic Forms

Sulphur Dioxide

Oxoacids of Sulphur

Sulphuric Acid

Group 17 Elements

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Chlorine

Hydrogen Chloride

Oxoacids of Halogens

Interhalogen Compounds

Group 18 Elements

Summary

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Dinitrogen

Ammonia

Oxides of Nitrogen

Nitric Acid

Phosphorus - Allotropic Forms

Phosphine

Phosphorus Halides

Phosphorus Pentachloride Oxoacids of Phosphorus

Group 16 Elements

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Dioxygen

Simple Oxides

Ozone

Sulphur - Allotropic Forms

Sulphur Dioxide

Oxoacids of Sulphur

Sulphuric Acid

Group 17 Elements

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Chlorine

Hydrogen Chloride

Oxoacids of Halogens

Interhalogen Compounds

Group 18 Elements

Summary

Introduction

Electronic Configuration of the d-Block Elements

General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)

Oxidation States Magnetic Properties Formation of Coloured Ions Formation of Complex Compounds Catalytic Properties Formation of Interstitial Compounds Alloy Formation Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements

The Inner Transition Elements ( f-BLOCK)

The Lanthanoids The Actinoids

Ionic Sizes Oxidation States General Characteristics and Comparison with Lanthanoids Summary

Electronic Configuration of the d-Block Elements

General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)

Oxidation States Magnetic Properties Formation of Coloured Ions Formation of Complex Compounds Catalytic Properties Formation of Interstitial Compounds Alloy Formation Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements

The Inner Transition Elements ( f-BLOCK)

The Lanthanoids The Actinoids

Ionic Sizes Oxidation States General Characteristics and Comparison with Lanthanoids Summary

Werner's Theory of Coordination Compounds

Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds

Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds

Isomerism in Coordination Compounds

Bonding in Coordination Compounds

Valence Bond Theory Limitations of Valence Bond Theory Crystal Field Theory Colour in Coordination Compound Stability of Coordination Compounds

Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds

Summary

Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds

Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds

Isomerism in Coordination Compounds

Bonding in Coordination Compounds

Valence Bond Theory Limitations of Valence Bond Theory Crystal Field Theory Colour in Coordination Compound Stability of Coordination Compounds

Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds

Summary

Classification

Nomenclature

Nature of C-X Bond

Methods of Preparation

From Hydrocarbons Halogen Exchange Physical Properties

Chemical Reactions

Polyhalogen Compounds

Summary

Nomenclature

Nature of C-X Bond

Methods of Preparation

From Hydrocarbons Halogen Exchange Physical Properties

Chemical Reactions

Polyhalogen Compounds

Summary

Classification

Nomenclature

Structures of Functional Groups

Alcohols and Phenols , Preparation of Alcohols

Preparation of Alcohols Preparation of Phenols Physical Properties Chemical Reactions Some Commercially Important Alcohols

Ethers

Summary

Nomenclature

Structures of Functional Groups

Alcohols and Phenols , Preparation of Alcohols

Preparation of Alcohols Preparation of Phenols Physical Properties Chemical Reactions Some Commercially Important Alcohols

Ethers

Summary

Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group

Structure of the Carbonyl Group Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones

Physical Properties

Chemical Reactions

Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones

Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group

Structure of Carboxyl Group Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids

Physical properties

Uses of Carboxylic Acids

Summary

Chemical Reactions of Carboxylic Acids

Reactions Involving Cleavage of O?H Bond Reactions Involving Cleavage of C?OH Bond Reactions Involving ?COOH Group

Structure of the Carbonyl Group Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones

Physical Properties

Chemical Reactions

Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones

Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group

Structure of Carboxyl Group Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids

Physical properties

Uses of Carboxylic Acids

Summary

Chemical Reactions of Carboxylic Acids

Reactions Involving Cleavage of O?H Bond Reactions Involving Cleavage of C?OH Bond Reactions Involving ?COOH Group

Structure of Amines

Classification

Nomenclature

Preparation of Amines

Physical Properties

Chemical Reactions

Method of Preparation of Diazoniun Salts

Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds

Summary

Classification

Nomenclature

Preparation of Amines

Physical Properties

Chemical Reactions

Method of Preparation of Diazoniun Salts

Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds

Summary

Carbohydrates

Classification of carbohydrates Monosaccharides Preparation of Glucose Cyclic Structure of Glucose Structure of Fructose Disaccharides Sucrose Maltose Lactose Polysaccharides Importance of Carbohydrates Proteins

Amino Acids Structure of Proteins Denaturation of Proteins Enzymes

Mechanism of Enzyme Action Vitamins

Classification of Vitamins Nucleic Acids

Structure of Nucleic Acids Biological Functions of Nucleic Acids Summary

Classification of carbohydrates Monosaccharides Preparation of Glucose Cyclic Structure of Glucose Structure of Fructose Disaccharides Sucrose Maltose Lactose Polysaccharides Importance of Carbohydrates Proteins

Amino Acids Structure of Proteins Denaturation of Proteins Enzymes

Mechanism of Enzyme Action Vitamins

Classification of Vitamins Nucleic Acids

Structure of Nucleic Acids Biological Functions of Nucleic Acids Summary

Classification of Polymers

Classification Based on Source Classification Based on Structure of Polymers Classification Based on Mode of Polymerisation Classification Based on Molecular Forces Types of Polymerisation Reactions

Rubber Molecular Mass of Polymers

Biodegradable Polymers

Polymers of Commercial Importance

Summary

Classification Based on Source Classification Based on Structure of Polymers Classification Based on Mode of Polymerisation Classification Based on Molecular Forces Types of Polymerisation Reactions

Rubber Molecular Mass of Polymers

Biodegradable Polymers

Polymers of Commercial Importance

Summary

Drugs and their Classification

Classification of Drugs Drug-Target Interaction

Enzymes as Drug Targets Drug-Target Interaction

Receptors as Drug Targets Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs

Antacids Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs

Antihistamines Neurologically Active Drugs Antimicrobials Antifertility Drugs Chemicals in Food

Artificial Sweetening Agents Chemicals in Food

Food Preservatives Cleansing Agents

Soaps Summary

Classification of Drugs Drug-Target Interaction

Enzymes as Drug Targets Drug-Target Interaction

Receptors as Drug Targets Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs

Antacids Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs

Antihistamines Neurologically Active Drugs Antimicrobials Antifertility Drugs Chemicals in Food

Artificial Sweetening Agents Chemicals in Food

Food Preservatives Cleansing Agents

Soaps Summary

Asexual Reproduction

Sexual reproduction

Pre-fertilisation Events Fertilisation Post-fertilisation Events Summary

Sexual reproduction

Pre-fertilisation Events Fertilisation Post-fertilisation Events Summary

Flower A Fascinating Organ Of Angiosperms

Pre-Fretilisation: Structures and Events

Stamen, Microsporangium and Pollen Grain The Pistil, Megasporangium (ovule) and Embryo sac Pollination Double Fertilisation

Post- Fertilisation : Structures and Events

Embryo Seed Summary

Pre-Fretilisation: Structures and Events

Stamen, Microsporangium and Pollen Grain The Pistil, Megasporangium (ovule) and Embryo sac Pollination Double Fertilisation

Post- Fertilisation : Structures and Events

Embryo Seed Summary

The Male Reproductive System

The Female Reproductive System

Gametogenesis

Menstural Cycle

Fertilisation and Implantation

Pregnancy and Embryonic Development

Parturition and Lactation

Summary

The Female Reproductive System

Gametogenesis

Menstural Cycle

Fertilisation and Implantation

Pregnancy and Embryonic Development

Parturition and Lactation

Summary

Reproductive health- Problems and Strategies

Population Explosion and Birth Control

Medical Termination of Pregnancy(MTP)

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS)

Infertility

Summary

Population Explosion and Birth Control

Medical Termination of Pregnancy(MTP)

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS)

Infertility

Summary

Mendels Law of Inheritance

Inheritance of One Gene

Incomplete Dominance and Co-dominance Inheritance of Two Genes

Law of Independent Assortment Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance Linkage and Recombination Sex Determination

Sex Determination in Humans Mutation

Genetic Disorders

Pedigree Analysis Mendelian Disorders Chromosomal disorders Summary

Inheritance of One Gene

Incomplete Dominance and Co-dominance Inheritance of Two Genes

Law of Independent Assortment Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance Linkage and Recombination Sex Determination

Sex Determination in Humans Mutation

Genetic Disorders

Pedigree Analysis Mendelian Disorders Chromosomal disorders Summary

The DNA

Structure of Polynucleotide Chain Packaging of DNA Helix The Search for Genetic Material

The Genetic Material is DNA Properties of Genetic Material (DNA versus RNA) RNA World

Replication

The Experimental Proof The Machinery and the EnzymesThe Machinery and the Enzymes Transcription

Transcription Unit and the Gene Types of RNA and the process of Transcription Genetic Code

Mutations and Genetic Code tRNA the Adapter Molecule Translation

Regulation of Gene Expression

The Lac operon Human Genome Project

Salient Features of Human Genome DNA Fingureprinting

Summary

Structure of Polynucleotide Chain Packaging of DNA Helix The Search for Genetic Material

The Genetic Material is DNA Properties of Genetic Material (DNA versus RNA) RNA World

Replication

The Experimental Proof The Machinery and the EnzymesThe Machinery and the Enzymes Transcription

Transcription Unit and the Gene Types of RNA and the process of Transcription Genetic Code

Mutations and Genetic Code tRNA the Adapter Molecule Translation

Regulation of Gene Expression

The Lac operon Human Genome Project

Salient Features of Human Genome DNA Fingureprinting

Summary

Origin of Life

Evolution of Life Forms - A Theory

What are the Evidences For Evolution?

What is Adaptive Radiation?

Biological Evolution

Mechanism of Evolution

Hardy-Weinberg Principle

A Brief Account of Evolution

Origin and Evolution of Man

Summary

Evolution of Life Forms - A Theory

What are the Evidences For Evolution?

What is Adaptive Radiation?

Biological Evolution

Mechanism of Evolution

Hardy-Weinberg Principle

A Brief Account of Evolution

Origin and Evolution of Man

Summary

Common Diseases in Humans

Immunity

Innate Immunity Acquired Immunity Active and Passive Immunity Vaccination and Immunisation Allergies Auto Immunity Immune System in the Body Aids

Cancer

Drugs and Alcohol Abuse

Summary

Immunity

Innate Immunity Acquired Immunity Active and Passive Immunity Vaccination and Immunisation Allergies Auto Immunity Immune System in the Body Aids

Cancer

Drugs and Alcohol Abuse

Summary

Animal Husbandry

Management of Farms and Farm Animals Poultry Farm Management Animal Breeding Bee-keeping Fisheries Plant Breeding

What is Plant Breeding? Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality Single Cell Protein (SCP)

Tissue Culture

Summary

Management of Farms and Farm Animals Poultry Farm Management Animal Breeding Bee-keeping Fisheries Plant Breeding

What is Plant Breeding? Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality Single Cell Protein (SCP)

Tissue Culture

Summary

Microbes in Household products

Microbes in Industrial products

Antibiotics Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules Microbes in Sewage Treatment

10.4 Microbes in Production of Biogas

10.5 Microbes in Biocontrol Agents

10.6 Microbes or Biofertilisers

Summary

Microbes in Industrial products

Antibiotics Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules Microbes in Sewage Treatment

10.4 Microbes in Production of Biogas

10.5 Microbes in Biocontrol Agents

10.6 Microbes or Biofertilisers

Summary

Principles of Biotechnology

Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology

Restriction Enzymes Cloning Vectors Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA) Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology

Summary

Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology

Restriction Enzymes Cloning Vectors Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA) Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology

Summary

Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture

Biotechnical Applications in Medicine

Genetically Engineered Insulin Gene Therapy Molecular Diagnosis Transgenic Animals

Ethical Issues

Summary

Biotechnical Applications in Medicine

Genetically Engineered Insulin Gene Therapy Molecular Diagnosis Transgenic Animals

Ethical Issues

Summary

Organism and its Environment

Major Abiotic Factors Responses to Abiotic Factors Adaptations Populations

Population Attributes Population Growth Life History Variation Population Interactions Summary

Major Abiotic Factors Responses to Abiotic Factors Adaptations Populations

Population Attributes Population Growth Life History Variation Population Interactions Summary

Ecosystem- Struture and Function

Productivity

Decomposition

Energy Flow

Ecological Pyramids

Ecological Succession

Succession of Plants Nutrient Cycling

Ecosystem Carbon Cycle Ecosystem Phosphorus Cycle Ecosystem Services

Summary

Productivity

Decomposition

Energy Flow

Ecological Pyramids

Ecological Succession

Succession of Plants Nutrient Cycling

Ecosystem Carbon Cycle Ecosystem Phosphorus Cycle Ecosystem Services

Summary

Biodiversity

How Many Species are there on Earth and How Many in India? Patterns of Biodiversity The importance of Species Diversity to the Ecosystem Loss of Biodiversity Biodiversity Conservation

Why Should We Conserve Biodiversity? How do we conserve Biodiversity? Summary

How Many Species are there on Earth and How Many in India? Patterns of Biodiversity The importance of Species Diversity to the Ecosystem Loss of Biodiversity Biodiversity Conservation

Why Should We Conserve Biodiversity? How do we conserve Biodiversity? Summary

Air Pollution and its Control

Controlling Vehicular Air Pollution: A Case Study of Delhi Water Pollution and its Control

Domestic Sewage and Industrial Effluents A Case Study of Integrated Waste Water Treatment Solid Wastes

Case Study of Remedy for Plastic Waste Agro- Chemicals and their Effects

Case Study of Organic Farming Radio Active Wastes

Green House Effect and Global Warming

Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere

Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance

Deforestation

Summary

Controlling Vehicular Air Pollution: A Case Study of Delhi Water Pollution and its Control

Domestic Sewage and Industrial Effluents A Case Study of Integrated Waste Water Treatment Solid Wastes

Case Study of Remedy for Plastic Waste Agro- Chemicals and their Effects

Case Study of Organic Farming Radio Active Wastes

Green House Effect and Global Warming

Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere

Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance

Deforestation

Summary

Introduction

Types of Relations

Types of Functions

Composition of Functions and Invertible Function

Binary Operations

Summary

Types of Relations

Types of Functions

Composition of Functions and Invertible Function

Binary Operations

Summary

Introduction

Basic Concepts

Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Summary

Basic Concepts

Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Summary

Introduction

Matrix

Order of a matrix Types of Matrices

Equality of matrices Operations on Matrices

Addition of matrices Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar Properties of matrix addition Properties of scalar multiplication of a matrix Multiplication of matrices Properties of multiplication of matrices Transpose of a Matrix

Properties of transpose of the matrices Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices

Elementary Operation (Transformation) of a Matrix

Invertible Matrices

Inverse of a matrix by elementary operations Summary

Matrix

Order of a matrix Types of Matrices

Equality of matrices Operations on Matrices

Addition of matrices Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar Properties of matrix addition Properties of scalar multiplication of a matrix Multiplication of matrices Properties of multiplication of matrices Transpose of a Matrix

Properties of transpose of the matrices Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices

Elementary Operation (Transformation) of a Matrix

Invertible Matrices

Inverse of a matrix by elementary operations Summary

Introduction

Determinant

Properties of Determinants

Area of a Triangle

Minors and Cofactors

Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix

Adjoint of a matrix Applications of Determinants and Matrices

Solution of system of linear equations using inverse of a Matrix Summary

Determinant

Properties of Determinants

Area of a Triangle

Minors and Cofactors

Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix

Adjoint of a matrix Applications of Determinants and Matrices

Solution of system of linear equations using inverse of a Matrix Summary

Introduction

Continuity

Algebra of continuous functions Differentiability

Derivatives of composite functions Derivatives of implicit functions Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Logarithmic Differentiation

Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms

Second Order Derivative

Mean Value Theorem

Summary

Continuity

Algebra of continuous functions Differentiability

Derivatives of composite functions Derivatives of implicit functions Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Logarithmic Differentiation

Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms

Second Order Derivative

Mean Value Theorem

Summary

Introduction

Rate of Change of Quantities

Increasing and Decreasing Functions

Tangents and Normals

Approximations

Maxima and Minima

Maximum and Minimum Values of a Function in a Closed Interval Summary

Rate of Change of Quantities

Increasing and Decreasing Functions

Tangents and Normals

Approximations

Maxima and Minima

Maximum and Minimum Values of a Function in a Closed Interval Summary

Introduction

Integration as an Inverse Process of Differentiation

Some properties of indefinite integral Comparison between differentiation and integration Methods of Integration

Integrals of Some Particular Functions

Integration by Partial Fractions

Integration by Parts

Integral of the type Definite Integral

Definite integral as the limit of a sum Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Some Properties of Definite Integrals

Summary

Integration as an Inverse Process of Differentiation

Some properties of indefinite integral Comparison between differentiation and integration Methods of Integration

Integrals of Some Particular Functions

Integration by Partial Fractions

Integration by Parts

Integral of the type Definite Integral

Definite integral as the limit of a sum Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Some Properties of Definite Integrals

Summary

Introduction

Area under Simple Curves

The area of the region bounded by a curve and a line Area between Two Curves

Summary

Area under Simple Curves

The area of the region bounded by a curve and a line Area between Two Curves

Summary

Introduction

Basic Concepts

General and Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation

Formation of a Differential Equation whose General Solution is given

Methods of Solving First Order, First Degree Differential Equations

equations with variables separable Homogeneous differential equations Linear differential equations Summary

Basic Concepts

General and Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation

Formation of a Differential Equation whose General Solution is given

Methods of Solving First Order, First Degree Differential Equations

equations with variables separable Homogeneous differential equations Linear differential equations Summary

Introduction

Some Basic Concepts

Types of Vectors

Addition of Vectors

Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar

Components of a Vector Vector joining two Points Section Formula Product of Two Vectors

Projection of a vector on a line Vector (or cross) product of two vectors Scalar (or dot) product of two vectors Summary

Some Basic Concepts

Types of Vectors

Addition of Vectors

Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar

Components of a Vector Vector joining two Points Section Formula Product of Two Vectors

Projection of a vector on a line Vector (or cross) product of two vectors Scalar (or dot) product of two vectors Summary

Introduction

Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Line

Relation between the direction cosines of a line Direction cosines of a line passing through two points Equation of a Line in Space

Equation of a line through a given point and parallel to a given vector b Equation of a line passing through two given points Angle between Two Lines

Shortest Distance between Two Lines

Distance between two skew lines Distance between parallel lines Plane

Equation of a plane in normal form Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point Plane passing through the intersection of two given planes Intercept form of the equation of a plane Coplanarity of Two Lines

Angle between Two Planes

Distance of a point from a plane

Angle between a Line and a Plane

Summary

Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Line

Relation between the direction cosines of a line Direction cosines of a line passing through two points Equation of a Line in Space

Equation of a line through a given point and parallel to a given vector b Equation of a line passing through two given points Angle between Two Lines

Shortest Distance between Two Lines

Distance between two skew lines Distance between parallel lines Plane

Equation of a plane in normal form Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point Plane passing through the intersection of two given planes Intercept form of the equation of a plane Coplanarity of Two Lines

Angle between Two Planes

Distance of a point from a plane

Angle between a Line and a Plane

Summary

Introduction

Linear Programming Problem and its Mathematical Formulation

Mathematical formulation of the problem Graphical method of solving linear programming problems Different Types of Linear Programming Problems

Summary

Linear Programming Problem and its Mathematical Formulation

Mathematical formulation of the problem Graphical method of solving linear programming problems Different Types of Linear Programming Problems

Summary

Introduction

Conditional Probability

Properties of conditional probability Multiplication Theorem on Probability

Independent Events

Bayes Theorem

Partition of a sample space and Theorem of total probability Random Variables and its Probability Distributions

Probability distribution of a random variable Mean of a random variable Variance of a random variable Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution

Bernoulli trials Binomial distribution Summary

Conditional Probability

Properties of conditional probability Multiplication Theorem on Probability

Independent Events

Bayes Theorem

Partition of a sample space and Theorem of total probability Random Variables and its Probability Distributions

Probability distribution of a random variable Mean of a random variable Variance of a random variable Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution

Bernoulli trials Binomial distribution Summary

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