- What is Physics?
- Scope and Excitement in Physics
- Physics Technology and Society
- Fundanmental Forces in Nature
- Nature of physical Laws
- Summary

- Introduction
- The International System of Units
- Measurement of Length
- Measurement of Mass
- Measurement of Time
- Accuracy, Precision of Instruments and Errors in measurement
- Significant Figures
- Dimensions of Physical Quantities
- Dimensional Formulae and Dimensional Equations
- Dimensional Analysis and its Applications
- Summary

- Introduction
- Positon, Path Length and Displacement
- Average Speed and Instantaneous Speed
- Velocity and its Types
- Acceleration
- Kinematic Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion
- Relative Velocity
- Summary

- Introduction
- Scalars and Vectors
- Multiplication of Vectors by Real Numbers
- Addition and Subtraction of Vectors- Graphical Method
- Resolution of Vectors
- Motion In a Plane- Position Vector and Displacement
- Motion in a Plane with Constant Acceleration
- Relative Velocity in Two Dimensions
- Projectile Motion
- Uniform Circular Motion
- Summary

- Introduction
- Aristotles Fallacy
- The Law of Inertia
- Newtons First Law of Motion
- Newtons Second Law of Motion
- Newtons Third Law of Motion
- Conservation of Momentum
- Equilibrium of a Particle
- Friction
- Circular Motion
- Solving Problems in Mechanics
- Summary

- Introduction
- Notions of Work and Kinetic Energy: The Work- Energy Theorem
- Work
- Kinetic Energy
- Work Done by a Variable Force
- The Work Energy Theorem for a Variable Force
- The Concept of Potential Energy
- The Conservation of Mechanical Energy
- The potential Energy of a Spring
- Various Forms of Energy: The Law of Conservation of Energy
- Heat Chemical Energy Electrical Energy Nuclear Energy The Principle of Conservation of Energy Power
- Collisions
- Summary

- Introduction
- Centre of Mass
- Motion of Centre of Mass
- Linear Mometum of a System of Particles
- Vector Product of Two Vectors
- Angular Velocity and its Relation with Linear Velocity
- Angular acceleration Torque and Angular Momentum
- Equilibrium of a Rigid Body
- Centre of gravity Moment of Inertia
- Theorems of perpendicular and Parallel Axes
- Dynamics of Rotaional motion About a Fixed Axis
- Angular Momentum in Case of a Rotation About a Fixed Axis
- Rolling Motion
- Summary

- Introduction
- Keplers Laws
- Universal Law of Gravitation
- The Gravitational Constant
- Acceleration Due to Gravity Of Earth
- Acceleration Due to Gravity Below and Above the Surface of Earth
- Gravitational Potential Energy
- Escape Speed
- Earth satellites
- Energy of an Orbiting Satellite
- Geostationary and Polar Satellites
- Weightlessness
- Summary

- Introduction
- Elastic behaviour of Solids
- Stress and Strain
- Hooke's Law
- Stress -Strain Curve
- Elastic Moduli
- Applications of Elastic Behaviour of Materials
- Summary

- Introduction
- Pressure
- Streamline Flow
- Bernoullis Principle
- Speed of Efflux: Torricelli?s Law Venturi-meter / Sprayer Dynamic Lift Viscosity
- Stoke's Law Reynolds Number
- Surface Tension
- Drops and Bubbles Capillary Rise Detergents Summary

- Introduction
- Temperature and Heat
- Measurement of Temperature
- Ideal - Gas Equation and Absolute Temperature
- Thermal Expansion
- Specific Heat Capacity
- Calorimetry
- Change of State
- Heat Transfer
- Newtons Law of Cooling
- Summary

- Introduction
- Thermal Equilibrium
- First law of Thermodynamics
- Specific Heat Capacity
- Thermodynamic State Variables and Equation of State
- Thermodynamic processes
- Heat Engines
- Refigerators and Heat Pumps
- Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Reversible and Irreversible Processes
- Carnot Engine
- Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
- Heat, Internal energy and Work
- Summary

- Introduction
- Molecular Nature of Matter
- Behaviour of Gases
- Kinetic Theory of an ideal Gas
- Pressure of an Ideal Gas Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature Law of Equipartition of Energy
- Specific Heat Capacity of gases, solids and water
- Mean free Path
- Summary

- Periodic and Oscillatory Motions
- Introduction
- Simple Harmonic Motion
- Simple Harmonic Motion and uniform Circular Motion
- Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion
- Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Some Systems Executing Simple Harmonic Motion
- Oscillations due to a Spring The Simple Pendulum Damped Simple Harmonic motion
- Forced Oscillations and Resonance
- Summary

- Introduction
- Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
- Displacement Relation In a Progressive Wave
- The Speed of a Travelling Wave
- The Principle of Superposition of Waves
- Reflection of Waves
- Standing Waves and Normal Modes Beats
- Doppler Effect
- Summary

- Introduction
- Nature of Matter
- Uncertainty in Measurement
- Significant Figures Dimensional Analysis Daltons Atomic Theory
- Atomic Mass and Molecular Mass
- Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric Calculations
- Reactions in Solutions Summary

- Introduction
- Charge to Mass Ratio of Electron Charge on the Electron Discovery of Protons and Neutrons Atomic Models
- Thomson Model of Atom Rutherford?s Nuclear Model of Atom Atomic Number and Mass Number Isobars and Isotopes Drawbacks of Rutherford Model Towards Quantum mechanical Model of the Atom
- Dual Behaviour of Matter Heisenberg?s Uncertainty Principle Summary

- Why do We need to Classify Elements
- Genesis of Periodic Classification
- Modern periodic Law and the Present Form of the Periodic Table
- Nomen Clature of Elements with Atomic Numbers>100
- Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table
- Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-.p-,d-,f- Blocks
- Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
- Summary

- Kossel Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding
- Covalent Bond Lewis Representation of Simple Molecules(The Lewis Structures) Limitations of the Octet Rule Ionic or Electrovalent Bond
- Bond Parameters
- Bond Length and Bond Angle Bond Enthalpy and Bond Order Resonance Structures Polarity of Bonds The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion(VSEPR) Theory
- Valence Bond Theory
- Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bonds Hybridisation Types of Hybridisation Molecular Orbital Theory
- Formation of Molecular Orbitals Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals(LCAO) Types of Molecular Orbitals Electronic Configuration and Molecular Behaviour Bonding in Some Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
- Hydrogen Bonding
- .1 Cause of Formation of Hydrogen Bond
- Summary

- Intermolecular Forces
- Thermal Energy
- Intermolecular Forces vs Thermal Interactions
- The Gaseous State
- The Gas Laws
- Charles Law (Temperature - Volume Relationship) Gay Lussacs Law (Pressure- Temperature Relationship) Avagadro Law (Volume -Amount Realtionship) Ideal - Gas Equation
- Density and Molar Mass of a Gaseous Substance
- Daltons Law of Partial Pressure
- Kinetic molecular Theory of Gases
- Behaviour of Real Gases: Deviation form Ideal Gas Behaviour
- Liquifaction of Gases
- Liquid State
- Surface Tension Viscocity Summary

- Thermodynamic State
- The Internal Energy as a State Function Applications
- Work Enthalpy Measurement of Delta U and Delta H: Calorimetry
- Enthalpy Change, Delta rH of a Reaction - Reaction Enthalpy
- Enthalpies for Different types of Reactions
- Spontaneity
- Gibbs Energy Change Equilibrium
- Summary

- Equilibrium in Physical Processes
- Liquid Vapour Equilibrium Solid Vapour Equilibrium Equilibrium Involving Dissolution of Solid or Gases in Liquids General Characteristics of Equlibria Involving Physical Processes Equilibrium in Chemical Processes - Dynamic Equilibrium
- Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant
- Homogenous Equilibria
- Heterogeneous Equilibria
- Applications of Equilibrium Constants
- Predicting the Direction of a Reaction Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations Relationship between Equilibrium constant K,Reaction Quotient Q, Gibbs Energy G
- Factors Affecting Equilibria
- Effect of Temperature Change Effect of a Catalyst Ionic Equilibrium in Solution
- Acids, Bases and Salts
- . The Bronsted Lowry Acids and Bases Lewis Acids and Bases Ionisation of Acids and Bases
- The PH scale Ionisation Constants of Weak Acids Ionisation of Weak Bases Realtion Between Ka and Kb Di- and polybasic Acids and Di - Polyacidic Bases Factors Affecting Acid Strength Common Ion Effect in the Ionization of Acids and Bases Hydrolysis of Salts and the PH of their Solutions Buffer Solutions
- Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
- Common Ion Effect On Solubility of Ionic Salts Summary

- Classical Idea of Redox Reactions- Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
- Redox Reactions in Terms of Electron Transfer Reactions
- Oxidation Number
- Types of Redox Reactions Balancing of Redox Reactions Redox Reactions as the Basis for Titrations Redox Reactions and Electrode Processes
- Summary

- Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table
- Dihydrogen, H2
- Isotopes of Hydrogen Preparation of Dihydrogen, H2
- Commercial Production of Dihydrogen Properties of Dihydrogen
- Physical Properties Chemical Properties Uses of Dihydrogen Hydrides
- Covalent or Molecular Hydride Metallic or Non-stoichiometric (or Interstitial ) Hydrides Water
- Physical Properties of Water Structure of Water Structure of Ice Chemical Properties of Water Hard and Soft Water Temporary Hardness Permanent Hardness Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)
- Physical Properties Structure Storage Uses Heavy Water, D2O
- Dihydrogen As a Fuel
- Summary

- Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals
- Chemical Properties Uses General Characteristics Of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals
- Anomalous Properties of Lithium
- Points of Similarities between Lithium and Magnesium Some Important Compounds of Sodium
- Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium
- Group 2 Elements: Alkaline Earth Metals
- Chemical Properties Uses General characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals
- Anomalous Behaviour of Berryllium
- Diagonal Relationship between Beryllium and Aluminium Some Important Compounds of Calcium
- Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
- Summary

- Group 13 Elements: the Boron Family
- Physical Properties Chemical Properties Important Trends and Anomalous Properties of Boron
- Some Important Compounds of Boron
- Diborane, B2H6 Uses of Boron and Aluminium and their Compounds
- Group 14 Elements: The Carbon Family
- Physical Properties Chemical Properties Important Trends and Anomalous Behaviour of Carbon
- Allotropes of Carbon
- Some Important Compounds of Carbon and Silicon
- Summary

- General Introduction
- Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds
- Some Characteristic Features of Pi Bonds Structural Representations of Organic Compounds
- Three-Dimensional Representation of Organic Molecules Classification of Organic Compounds
- Nomenclature of Organic Compounds
- The IUPAC System of Nomenclature IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkanes Nomenclature of Organic Compounds having Functional Group Nomenclature of Substituted Benzene Compounds Isomerism
- Structural Isomerism Stereoisomerism Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism
- Fission of a Covalent Bond Nucleophiles and Electrophlies Electron Movement in Organic Reactions Electron Displacement Effects in Covalent Bonds Inductive Effect Resonance Structure Resonance Effect Electromeric Effect (E effect) Hyperconjugation Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds
- Crystallisation Distillation Differential Extraction Chromatography Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds
- Detection of Other Elements Quantitative Analysis
- Nitrogen Halogens Sulphur Phosphorus Oxygen Summary

- Classification
- Alkanes
- Nomenclature and Isomerism Preparation Properties Chemical properties Conformations Structure of Double Bond Alkenes
- Isomerism Preparation Properties Alkynes
- Nomenclature and Isomerism Preparation Properties Aromatic Hydrocarbons
- Structure of Benzene Aromaticity Preparation of Benzene Properties Directive influence of a functional group in monosubstituted benzene Carcinogenicity and Toxicity
- Summary

- Environmental Pollution
- Atmospheric Pollution
- Tropospheric Pollution Gaseous air pollutants Particulate Pollutants Water Pollution
- Causes of Water Pollution Soil Pollution
- Industrial Waste
- Strategies to Control Environmental Pollution
- Green Chemistry
- Summary

- What is Living?
- Diversity in the living World
- Taxonomic Categories
- Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Taxonomical Aids
- Herbarium Botanical Gardens Museum Zoological Parks Key Summary

- Kingdom Monera
- Archaebacteria Eubacteria Kingdom Protista
- Chrysophytes Dianoflagellates Euglenoids Slime Moulds Protozoans Kingdom Fungi
- Phycomycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes Deuteromycetes Kingdom plantae
- Kingdom Animalia
- Viruses, Viroids and Lichens
- Summary

- Algae
- Chlorophyceae Phaeophyceae Rhodophyceae Bryophytes
- Liverworts Mosses Pteridophytes
- Gymnosperms
- Angiosperms
- Plant life Cycle and Alternation of Generations
- Summary

- Basis of Classification
- Levels of Organisation Symmetry Diploblastic and Triploblastic Organisation Coelom Segmentation Notochord Classification of Animals
- Phylum ? Porifera Phylum ? Coelenterata (Cnidaria Phylum ? Ctenophora Phylum ? Platyhelminthes Phylum ? Aschelminthes Phylum ? Annelida Phylum ? Arthropoda Phylum ? Mollusca Phylum ? Echinodermata Phylum ? Hemichordata Phylum ? Chordata Class ? Cyclostomata Class ? Chondrichthyes Class ? Osteichthyes Class ? Amphibia Class ? Reptilia Class ? Aves Class ? Mammalia Summary

- The Root
- Regions of the Root Modifications of Root The Stem
- Modifications of Stem The Leaf
- Venation Types of Leaves Phyllotaxy Modifications of Leaves The Inflorescence
- The Flower
- Parts of a Flower Calyx Corolla Androecium Gynoecium The Fruit
- The Seed
- Structure of a Dicotyledonous Seed Structure of Monocotyledonous Seed Description of Some Important Families
- Fabaceae Solanaceae Lilaceae Summary

- The Tissues
- The Tissue System
- Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants
- Secondary Growth
- Summary

- Animal Tissues
- Organ and Organ System
- Earthworm
- Cockroach
- Frogs
- Summary

- What is a Cell?
- Cell Theory
- An Overview of Cell
- Prokaryotic Cells
- Cell Envelope and its Modifications Eukaryotic Cells
- Cell Membrane Cell Wall Endomembrane System The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Plastids Ribosomes Cytoskeleton Cilia and Flagella Centrosome and Centrioles Nucleus Microbodies Summary

- How to Analyse Chemical Composition?
- Primary and Secondary Metabolites
- Biomacromolecules
- Proteins
- Polysaccharides
- Nucleic Acids
- Structure of Proteins
- Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer
- Dynamic State of Body Constituents- Concept of Metabolism
- Metabolic Basis for Living
- The Living State
- Enzymes
- Chemical Reactions How do Enzymes bring about such High Rates of Chemical Conversions? Nature of Enzyme Action Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes Co-factors Summary

- Cell Cycle
- Phases of Cell Cycle M Phase
- Significance of Mitosis
- Meiosis
- Significance of Meiosis
- Summary

- Means of Transport
- Comparison of Different Transport Processes Plant-Water Relations
- Water Potential Osmosis Plasmolysis Imbibition Long Distance Transport of Water
- Transpiration
- Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients
- Uptake of Mineral Ions Translocation of Mineral Ions PhloemTransport: Flow From Source to Sink
- The Pressure Flow or Mass Flow Hypothesis Summary

- Methods to Study the Mineral Requirements
- Essential Mineral Elements
- Criteria for Essentiality Role of Macro- and Micro-nutrients Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Elements Toxicity of Micronutrients Mechanism of Absorption of Elements
- Translocation of Solutes
- Soil as Reservoir of Essential Elements
- Metabolism of Nitrogen
- Nitrogen Cycle Biological Nitrogen Fixation Summary

- What do we Know?
- Early Experiments
- Where Does Photosynthesis Take Place?
- How Many Pigments Are Involved in Photosynthesis
- What is Light Reaction?
- The Electron Transport
- Splitting of Water Cyclic and Non-cyclic Photo-phosphorylation Chemiosmotic Hypothesis Where Are The ATP AND NADPH Used?
- The Primary Acceptor of CO2 The Calvin Cycle The C4 Pathway
- Photorespiration
- Factors Affecting Phototsynthesis
- Carbon dioxide Concentration Temperature Water Summary

- Do Plants Breathe
- Glycolysis
- Fermentation
- Aerobic Respiration
- The Respiratory Balance Sheet
- Amphibolic Pathway
- Respiratory Quotient
- Summary

- Growth
- Growth is Measurable Phases of Growth Growth Rates Conditions for Growth Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Rediffetentiation
- Development
- Plant Growth Regulators
- The Discovery of Plant Growth Regulators Physiological Effects of Plant Growth Regulators Gibberellins Cytokinins Ethylen Abscisic acid Photoperiodism
- Vernalisation
- Summary

- Digestive System
- Alimentary Canal Digestive Glands Digestion of Food
- Absorption of Digested Food Products
- Disorders of Digestive System
- Summary

- Respiratory Organs
- Human Respiratory System Mechanism of Breathing
- Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Exchange of Gases
- Transport of Gases
- Transport of Carbon dioxide Regulation of Respiration
- Disorders of Respiratory System
- Summary

- Blood
- Formed Elements Blood Groups Rh grouping Coagulation of Blood Lymph (Tissue Fluid)
- Circulatory Pathways
- Human Circulatory System Cardiac Cycle Electrocardiograph (ECG) Double Circulation
- Regulation of Cardiac Activity
- Disorders of Circulatory System
- Summary

- Human Excretory System
- Urine Formation
- Function of the Tubules
- Mechanism of Concentration of the Filtrate
- Regulation of Kidney Function
- Micturition
- Role of Other Organs in Excretion
- Disorders of the Excretory System
- Summary

- Types of Movement
- Muscle
- Structure of Contractile Proteins Mechanism of Muscle Contraction Skeletal System
- Joints
- Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System
- Summary

- Neural System
- Human Neural System
- Central Neural system
- Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Reflex Action and Reflex Arc
- Sensory Reception and Processing
- Eye The Ear Mechanism of Hearing Summary
- Neuron as structural and functional unit of neural system
- Generation and Conduction of Nerve Impulse Transmission of impulses

- Endocrine Glands and Hormones
- Human Endocrine System
- The Pituitary Gland The Pineal Gland Thyroid Gland Parathyroid Gland Thymus Adrenal Gland Pancreas Testis Ovary Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract
- Mechanism of Hormone Action
- Summary

- Introduction
- Sets and their Representations
- The Empty Set
- Finite and Infinite Sets
- Equal Sets
- Subsets
- Intervals as subsets of R Power Set
- Universal Set
- Venn Diagrams
- Operations on Sets
- Union of sets Intersection of sets Difference of sets Complement of a Set
- Practical Problems on Union and Intersection of Two Sets
- Summary

- Introduction
- Cartesian Products of Sets
- Relations
- Functions
- Some functions and their graphs Algebra of Real Functions Summary

- Introduction
- Angles
- Degree Measure Radian measure Relation between Radian and Real numbers Relation between Degree and Radian Trigonometric Functions
- Sign of Trigonometric Functions Domain and Range of Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Functions of Sum and Difference of Two Angles
- Trigonometric Equations
- Summary

- Introduction
- Motivation
- The Principle of Mathematical Induction
- Summary

- Introduction
- Complex Numbers
- Algebra of Complex Numbers
- Addition of two complex numbers Difference of two complex numbers Multiplication of two complex numbers Division of two complex numbers The square roots of a negative real number Power of i Identities The Modulus and the Conjugate of a Complex Number
- Argand Plane and Polar Representation
- Polar representation of a complex number Quadratic Equations
- Summary

- Introduction
- Inequalities
- Algebraic Solutions of Linear Inequalities in One Variable and their Graphical Representation
- Graphical Solution of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
- Solution of System of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
- Summary

- Introduction
- Fundamental Principle of Counting
- Permutations
- Permutations when all the objects are distinct Factorial notation Derivation of the formula for nPr Permutations when all the objects are not distinct objects Combinations
- Summary

- Introduction
- Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices
- Binomial theorem for any positive integer n, Some special cases In the expansion of (a + b)n, General and Middle Terms
- Summary

- Introduction
- Sequences
- Series
- Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)
- Arithmetic mean Geometric Progression (G . P.)
- General term of a G .P. Sum to n terms of a G .P. Geometric Mean (G .M.) Relationship Between A.M. and G.M.
- Sum to n Terms of Special Series
- Summary

- Introduction
- Slope of a Line
- Slope of a line when coordinates of any two points on the line are given Conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity of lines in terms of their slopes Angle between two lines A Collinearity of three points Various Forms of the Equation of a Line
- Horizontal and vertical lines Point-slope form Two-point form Slope-intercept form Intercept - form Normal form General Equation of a Line
- Different forms of Ax + By + C = 0 Distance of a Point From a Line
- Distance between two parallel lines Summary

- Introduction
- Circle
- Parabola
- Standard equations of parabola Latus rectum Ellipse
- Special cases of an ellipse Eccentricity Standard equations of an ellipse Latus rectum Relationship between semi major, semi minor axis and the distance of the focus from the centre Hyperbola
- Eccentricity Standard equation of Hyperbola Latus Rectum Summary
- Sections of a Cone

- Introduction
- Coordinate Axes and Coordinate Planes in Three Dimensional Space
- Coordinates of a Point in Space
- Distance between Two Points
- Section Formula
- Summary

- Introduction
- Intuitive Idea of Derivatives
- Limits
- Limits of Trigonometric Functions
- Derivatives
- Algebra of derivative of functions Derivative of polynomials and Trigonometric Functions Summary

- Introduction
- Statements
- New Statements from Old
- Negation of a statement Compound statements Special Words/Phrases
- The word And The word Or Quantifiers rd ?And rd ?Or fiers Implications
- Contrapositive and converse Validating Statement By Contradiction
- Summary

- Introduction
- Measures of Dispersion
- Range
- Mean Deviation
- Mean deviation for ungrouped data Mean deviation for grouped data Limitations of Mean Deviation Variance and Standard Deviation
- Analysis of Frequency Distributions
- Summary

- Introduction
- Random Experiments
- Event
- Axiomatic Approach to Probability
- Summary

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